Contents of issue # 9/2020

■ STATE AND LAW IN THE MODERN WORLD: PROBLEMS OF THEORY AND HISTORY

Philosophical Foundations of Implementation Activities

V. V. Lazarev

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 107078, Russian Federation
E-mail: lazarev@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.102

Abstract. The issues of implementation processes in different legal systems are getting actualized in the context, where unipolar world system collapses and manifests its negative aspects and international relations are reorganized globally in spite of the national states' sovereign rights. Meanwhile, the general theory of this activity at the doctrinal level is hardly studied, and its philosophical aspects are not touched at all. For the purpose of a comprehensive and fruitful study, the amendments to the Russian Constitution are critically assessed. These amendments are not consistent in scientific terms, as they allegedly infringe the authority of international law.
The article reveals the content of implementation activities, resolves the issue of the expediency and usefulness of transferring the norms of law and their interpretations from one system to another. It emphasizes the continuity in legal development and the operation of the laws of dialectics and, despite the extremes of synergetic approaches, points to the civilizational significance of the organizing activity of the state.
The author formulates a general philosophy of implementation activity and reveals its embodiment in specific conceptual requirements. The first to be adopted is the concept of subsidiarity, and the emphasis is on the fact that the nation state, following the generally recognized principles and norms of international law, is able to effectively resolve the issue without resorting to the international community and international courts. On a constitutional, legal and conventional basis, international legal protection of the rights of individuals is allowed when domestic remedies have been exhausted. In accordance with the principle of subsidiarity, a states and relevant authorities are assumed to be sovereign and must enforce the enforcement of rights and obligations at the domestic level within the national legal system. At the same time, this implicito principle presupposes the participation of a supranational body in the development of an optimal effective solution based on the principle of complementarity in the assessment of different legal systems.
The novelty of the proposed article can be seen in the author's conclusions related to the appeal to those positions of physicists (their quantum theory), in which the principle of complementarity is considered as the philosophical basis of all theoretical and practical solutions. The general conclusion about the complementarity of the rational side of reality, and its cognition and the irrational side associated with it, extends to legal systems. As a result, the author recognizes the need to turn to transdisciplinary approaches, which overcome the narrowness of individual methodologies and require the synthesis of different epistemological paradigms.

Keywords: national law, international law, legal system, implementation, principle of subsidiarity, principle of complementarity, trans-disciplinarity.

For citation: Lazarev V. V. Philosophical Foundations of Implementation Activities. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 9, pp. 5—18. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.102 (In Russ.)

References

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Alekseev O. B. Subsidiarnost' i prostranstvennoe razvitie. Available at: http://vasilievaa.narod.ru/mu/csipfo/csi/textforum2.htm.

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Aristova K. S. Printsip subsidiarnosti v deyatel'nosti Evropeyskogo suda po pravam cheloveka. Cand. diss. thesis. Moscow, 2012. Available at: http://dislib.ru/yuridicheskie/108725-1-principsubsidiarnosti-deyatelnosti-evropeyskogo-suda-po-pravam-cheloveka.php.

Bazhanov V. A. Dopolnitel'nosti (printsip). Entsiklopediya epistemologii i filosofii nauki. Ed. by I. T. Kasavin. Moscow, 2009.

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Bor N. Izbrannye nauchnye trudy. Moscow, 1971.

Chaadaev Petr Yakovlevich. Otryvki i raznye mysli (1828—1850-e gody). Available at: http://az.lib.ru/c/chaadaew_p_j/text_0110.shtml.

Denisenko V. V. Irratsional'nye i ratsional'nye pravovye sistemy i legitimatsiya v nikh zakona. Pravovedenie, 2014, no. 4.

Il'in I. A. Sobranie sochineniy. Vol. 7. Moscow, 1998.

Ivanskiy V. P. Informatsionno-kognitivnoe (kvantovoe) pravoponimanie: ponyatie i kriterii. Pravovedenie, 2014, no. 4.

Lazarev V. V. Chaadaev. Moscow, 1986.

Lazarev V. V. On Organicity for Law of Reasonableness and Definiteness. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2015, no. 3, pp. 142—145. (In Russ.)

Opredelennost' i neopredelennost' prava kak parnye kategorii: problemy teorii i praktiki: materialy XII mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii. Moscow, 2018.

Porus V. N. Dopolnitel'nosti printsip. Novaya filosofskaya entsiklopediya. 2nd ed. Moscow, 2010.

Shmitt K. Politicheskaya teologiya. Ed. by A. Fillipov. Moscow, 2000.

Transdistsiplinarnost' v filosofii i nauke: podkhody, problemy, perspektivy. Ed. by V. Bazhanov, R. V. Shol'ts. Moscow, 2015.

Varga Ch. Poryadok iz khaosa? Filosofiya sozdaniya i primeneniya evropeyskogo prava. Pravovedenie, 2014, no. 6.

Vedeneev Yu. A. Grammatika pravoporyadka. Moscow, 2018.

Vlasenko N. A. Problemy pravovoy neopredelennosti. Moscow, 2015.

The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Legal Activity of a Person

E. A. Pevtsova

E. A. Pevtsovaa, b
a
Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
bMoscow Region State University, Mytishchi 141014, Moscow Region, Russian Federation
E-mail: pevtsova@bk.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.103

Abstract. The relevance of the problem under study is due to a number of circumstances. Firstly, the active penetration of artificial intelligence into the public life of modern man requires the search for new ways of coexistence in modern VUCA world and the Big Data era. Secondly, the actual absence of a sufficient number of regulatory acts regulates human activities in those areas where a person directly competes with the world of automated mechanisms and artificial intelligence. Thirdly, there is insufficient knowledge and resolve of the problem of the relationship between artificial intelligence and ethics per se, morality. The latter attributes in the behavior of man, but is absolutely indifferent to artificial intelligence according to most scientists. The topic is global in nature and don't bypass any legal system of our time, and therefore requires the inclusion in the development of the problem the scientific data obtained by modern comparativists.
The article aims to analyze the current trends in the relationship between a person and artificial intelligence in the legal space and to determine the ways of the most effective legal regulation of the behavior of a man faced with artificial intelligence. The leading method in this paper is a systematic analysis of the prevailing practice in the legal space and regulations governing social relations, into which automation is actively intruding.
The article concludes that artificial intelligence is gradually crowding out many human competences in the legal space, but is not able to take on important functions of ensuring the preservation of human values in society, the principles of justice and morality. Strengthening its role in the legal sphere cannot replace the important function of law — the upbringing, what affects the legal consciousness of people and reinforces respect for the values of law enshrined in it by a man. The article may be useful for lawmakers and law enforcement agencies in the development of new regulations governing the behavior of people in the areas served by artificial intelligence.

Keywords: legal behavior, artificial intelligence, legal consciousness of a person, lawful behavior, illegal behavior, robotics, digital economy, industrial revolution, legal activity.

For citation: Pevtsova E. A. The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Legal Activity of a Person. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 9, pp. 19—31. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.103 (In Russ.)

References

Bostrom N. Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies. Oxford, 2014. 390 p.

Bredneva V. S. Place and role of mass consciousness in the information sphere. Informatsionnoe pravo, 2008, no. 2 (13). (In Russ.)

Ernest N., Carroll D., Schumacher C., Clark M. et al. Genetic Fuzzy based Artificial Intelligence for Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle Control in Simulated Air Combat Missions. Journal of Defense Management, 2016, vol. 6, iss. 1.

Gerla M., Lee E., Pau G., Lee U. Internet of vehicles: From intelligent grid to autonomous cars and vehicular clouds. IEEE World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT). 2014.

Hallevy G. Liability for Crimes Involving Artificial Intelligence Systems. Dordrech, 2015. 262 p.

Khabrieva T. Y. Law Facing the Challenges of Digital Reality. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 9, pp. 5—16. DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_9_1 (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y., Chernogor N. N. The Law in the Conditions of Digital Reality. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 1, pp. 85—102. DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_1_7 (In Russ.)

Khisamova Z. I., Begishev I. R., Gaifutdinov R. R. On Methods to Legal Regulation of Artificial Intelligence in the World. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, 2019, vol. 9, no. 1.

Khisamova Z. I., Begishev I. R., Sidorenko E. L. Artificial Intelligence and Problems of Ensuring Cyber Security. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 2019, vol. 13, iss. 2.

Kovler A. I. Human rights in the digital age. Byulleten' Evropeyskogo suda po pravam cheloveka. Rossiyskoe izdanie, 2019, no. 6.

Ponkin I. V., Red'kina A. I. Artificial intelligence from a legal perspective. Vestnik Rossiiskogo universiteta druzhby narodov. Seriya: Yuridicheskie nauki = RUDN Journal of Law, 2018, vol. 22, no. 1. (In Russ.)

Solaiman S. M. Legal personality of robots, corporations, idols and chimpanzees: a quest for legitimacy. Artificial Intelligence and Law, 2017, vol. 25, iss. 2.

Turing A. M. Computing Machinery and Intelligence. 1950. Mind 49: 433-460. Available at: https://www.csee.umbc.edu/courses/471/papers/turing.pdf.

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Yastrebov O. A. Artificial intelligence in the legal space: conceptual and theoretical approaches. Legal personality: the collection of materials for the XII Annual Scientific Readings in memoriam of Professor S. N. Bratus. Moscow, 2017. (In Russ.)

Yastrebov O. A. Legal personality of an electronic person: theoretical and methodological approaches. Trudy Instituta gosudarstva i prava Rossiyskoy akademii nauk, 2018, vol. 13, no. 2. (In Russ.)

Legal Concept of Robotization. Ed. by Yu. A. Tikhomirov, S. B. Nanba. Moscow, 2019. 240 p. (In Russ.)

Zor'kin V. D. Law in the digital world. Reflections on the sidelines of the St. Petersburg International Legal Forum. Available at: https//rg.ru/2018/05/29/zorkin-zadacha-gosudarstvapriznavat-i-zashchishchat-cifrovye-prava-grazhdan.html/. (In Russ.)

■ CONSTITUTIONAL AND MUNICIPAL LAW

Interregional State Programs as a Tool to Modernize the Realization Mechanism of the Powers Realized by Russian Constituent Entities in the Framework of Joint Jurisdiction with the Russian Federation

I. V. Irkhin

Administration of the Krasnodar region, Krasnodar 350000, Russian Federation
E-mail: dissertacia@yandex.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.104

Abstract. The article conducts a constitutional-legal analysis of the problems concerning optimization mechanisms for the implementation of powers by the Russian constituent entities within a joint jurisdiction with the Russian Federation.
The purpose of the study is to justify the feasibility of using the potential of interregional state programs to address issues related to the joint powers of the Russian Federation and its constituent entity, carried out by the latter autonomously and at their own expense. The tasks are: to conduct constitutional-legal analysis of the methodology for regulating matters of joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and its constituent entities, where the regions exercise their powers autonomously and at the expense of their own budget funds; to study the contractual mechanism for the exercising powers by the constituent entities on matters of joint jurisdiction with the Russian Federation; to study the institution of “horizontal subsidies”; to study problematic of the macro-regions' institutionalization issues; to substantiate proposals for the implementation of interregional state programs in the system of strategic planning tools in the Russian Federation.
The research is based on formal legal, dialectic, historical, systemic and structural methods, and method of prognostication.
It is concluded, that the problems of constitutional-legal regulation of the delineation scheme of powers between the Russian Federation and its regions on issues of joint jurisdiction are identified. In relation to the mechanism of strategic planning, the current practice of contractual regulation of inter-regional relations seems unnecessarily complicated and cumbersome. It is substantiated that it is inexpedient to limit the potential capabilities of macro-regions, as well as the institution of “horizontal subsidies” in the framework of the development and (or) implementation of state programs of “partner regions”. The constituent entity of the Russian Federation should have the right to develop interregional state programs. It is argued that there is a need to clarify the role and significance of the plenipotentiary representatives of the President of the Russian Federation in the federal districts and their apparatuses. This thesis also includes the general federal inspectors for the constituent entities of the Russian Federation to develop and evaluate the implementation of interregional state programs.

Keywords: matters of joint jurisdiction, constituent entities of the Russian Federation, contractual regulation, associations of economic interaction, macro-regions, horizontal subsidies, inter-regional state programs.

For citation: Irkhin I. V. Interregional State Programs as a Tool to Modernize the Realization Mechanism of the Powers Realized by Russian Constituent Entities in the Framework of Joint Jurisdiction with the Russian Federation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 9, pp. 32—43. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.104 (In Russ.)

References

Bezrukov A. V. Dermarcation of competence between public-territorial entities in the conditions of federal transformations. Sovremennoe pravo, 2010, no. 12, pp. 18—23. (In Russ.)

Blankenagel' A. In search of the disappeared exclusive powers of the subjects of the Russian Federation. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, 2007, no. 1, pp. 153—162. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y. Constitutional reform in the modern world. Moscow, 2016. 320 p. (In Russ.)

Kim Yu. V. On the goal setting basises, palliatives and fictions in constitutional regulation. Konstitutsionnoe i munitsipal'noe pravo, 2019, no. 6, pp. 3—11. (In Russ.)

Ovsepyan Zh. I. Legislative powers and interests of the subjects of the Russian Federation: on the issue of ensuring the implementation of the constitutional principle of the demarcation of competence between the Russian Federation and subjects of the Russian Federation. On the 20th anniversary of the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation. Zhurnal konstitutsionnogo pravosudiya, 2014, no. 1, pp. 23—37. (In Russ.)

State-legal framework for the accelerated development of the Russian Far East. Ed. by Yu. A. Tikhomirov. Moscow, 2018. 301 p. (In Russ.)

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Umnova I. A. Problems of defederalization and prospects for optimization of the modern russian model of demarcation of objectes of competence in the context of the doctrine of Subsidiarity. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, 2012, no. 2, pp. 45—55. (In Russ.)

Features of the Protection of Cultural Rights in the Context of the Development of Digital Technologies

D. V. Zhukov

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: oberon1967@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.105

Abstract. The article studies the features of protection of cultural rights of a person and a citizen in the conditions of developing technological progress. The inclusion of cultural rights in the category of constitutionally enshrined rights is the features belonging to the development of the legislative process in many countries of the world since the second half of the 20th Century. The article notes that in a very short period of time, digital technologies have changed and reshaped the life of modern society. Problems with the implementation of information security programs can be rightfully attributed to the peculiarities of the protection of cultural rights.
The author concludes that due to the global technological progress in all spheres of human activity, which is expressed in the development of digital technologies, especially in the sphere of culture under consideration, such changes require a thorough revision of existing regulatory legal acts, which cover this area.

Keywords: cultural values, cultural achievements, cultural facilities, cultural heritage, cultural heritage sites, cultural property, monuments of history and culture, digitalization, digital culture, digital technology, digital rights.

For citation: Zhukov D. V. Features of the Protection of Cultural Rights in the Context of the Development of Digital Technologies. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 9, pp. 44—52. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.105 (In Russ.)

References

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Aliev V. M. The Political and Legal Aspects of the Transfer to Digital Economy in Russia. Rossiyskiy sledovatel', 2018, no. 9, pp. 48—52. (In Russ.)

Gorokhov D. B., Melnik T. E. Monitoring of Legislation of Cities of Federal Significance on Objects of Cultural Heritageya. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2013, no. 10, pp. 56—68. (In Russ.)

Ivakina D. S. The Conception and IGNS of the Main Cultural Human Rights and the Citizen in the Russian Federation. Vestnik SGYuA, 2014, no. 1 (96).

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Tikhomirov Yu. A. Legal regulation: theory and practice. Moscow, 2008. 400 p. (In Russ.)

Vilkova A. V., Litvishkov V. M., Shvyrev B. A. Issues of Continuous training of Information Security Personnel. Ugolovno-ispolnitel'naya sistema: pravo, ekonomika, upravlenie, 2019, no. 5, pp. 37—40. (In Russ.)

■ CIVIL AND FAMILY LAW. ENTREPRENEURIAL LAW

Legal Support for Developing Renewable Energy Technologies

O. A. Simvolokov

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: simvolokovo@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.106

Abstract. The growing importance of renewable energy sources used for the production of electric and thermal energy has a direct impact on the nature and peculiarities of the current legislation of the Russian Federation on the electric power industry. The reform of electricity legislation to stimulate the development of renewable energy technologies has been accompanied by a number of legal problems.
The general result of Russian renewable power in its current stage of legal regulation is the following: the renewable power without support cannot develop and compete with traditional power on equal terms. Thus, there is an objective need to improve further the existing and develop new legislative mechanisms to support renewable energy technologies.
The purpose of the article is to identify what needs to be improved in legislation ensuring the development of renewable energy technologies. 
Methodological basis: popular (dialectical) method of knowledge, methods and techniques of formal logic (analysis, synthesis, induction, derivation, etc.) and special methods of knowledge (including formal-legal, comparative-legal, technical-legal, systemic, empirical, statistical).
The article analyzes the main positive and negative factors affecting the legal regulation of relations on the use of renewable energy sources. It also provides an overview of scientific research of legal scientists on the development of renewable energy technologies, analyzes the concept of a facility operating on the basis of the use of renewable energy sources and considers the legal mechanisms for supporting renewable energy used in wholesale and retail markets of electric energy (Capacity). Another analysis in the article is devoted to problems of development of legislation in the field of renewable energy. Finally, it formulates directions of further improvement of legal regulation in the field of renewable energy. 
It is generally concluded that the ultimate goal of all legislative measures and support mechanisms should be a competitive renewable energy sector capable to develop independently without granting benefits and preferences. It is gradually necessary to limit as much as possible the application of support measures until they are completely abolished. Renewable energy facilities should compete with non-renewable energy facilities on a general basis.

Keywords: renewables, renewable power, wholesale and retail markets of electric energy (power), mechanism of support, competitiveness.

For citation: Simvolokov O. A. Legal Support for Developing Renewable Energy Technologies. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 9, pp. 53—67. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.106 (In Russ.)

References

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Kopylov A. E. Economy of RES. Moscow, 2016. 576 p. (In Russ.)

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Maslova O. S. Constitutional and Legal Framework for Energy Security. Cand. diss. thesis. Moscow, 2017. 31 p. (In Russ.)

Otyutskaya E. I. Incentives and Limitations in Energy Conservation: Civil and Legal Aspects. Cand. diss. thesis. Krasnodar, 2012. 25 p. (In Russ.)

Ponomareva D. V. Impact of the Court of Justice of the European Union on the Development of EU Energy Law. Cand. diss. Moscow, 2017. 202 p. (In Russ.)

Popondopulo V. F., Gorodov O. A., Petrov D. A. Renewable Energy in the Electric Power Industry. Energeticheskoe pravo, 2011, no. 1, pp. 23—29. (In Russ.)

Shchepanskiy I. S. Environmental and Legal Problems of Ensuring Energy Security in Russia. Cand. diss. thesis. Moscow, 2013. 29 p. (In Russ.)

Simvolokov O. A. State Energy Investment Policy: State, Problems, Development Directions. In Andreeva L. V., Andrichenko L. V., Bayrashev V. R. et al. Investitsii v natsional'nom i mezhdunarodnom prave: balans chastnykh i publichnykh interesov: sbornik materialov k XIV Ezhegodnym nauchnym chteniyam pamyati professora S. N. Bratusya. Moscow, 2019. Pp. 239—248. (In Russ.)

Solovey Yu. V. Civil Regulation of Greenhouse Gas Emission and Absorption Activities. Cand. diss. thesis. Moscow, 2005. 26 p. (In Russ.)

Yakovlev V. F. Legal State: Formation Issues. Moscow, 2012. 488 p. (In Russ.)

Zarubina V. V. Legal Regulation of Energy Saving in the Agro-industrial Complex. Cand. diss. thesis. Saratov, 2004. 26 p. (In Russ.)

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Conditional Transactions in the Statics and Dynamics of Civil Circulation

V. V. Gruzdev

Siberian Institute of Management (branch), Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Novosibirsk 630102, Russian Federation
E-mail: gruzvlad@rambler.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.107

Abstract. Transactions under the condition are known to civil science since the time of Roman Private Law. At the same time, they are insufficiently investigated, as evidenced by the previously widespread judicial practice of invalidating transactions made under the condition, where the occurrence is dependent on the will of the subject of the transaction. In the course of the last “big” reform of civil legislation, it formulated the norm on conditional performance of obligations, which also requires doctrinal reflection in the aspect of its correlation with the rules on conditional transactions.
Using formal-logical, historical and comparative-legal methods of research, the author distinguishes the concepts of conditional transaction and conditional obligation, which is a type of an obligation with conditional performance.
It is concluded that being conditional is an obligation that is not subject to execution until a certain circumstance occur. It either depends or not on the will of its parties. Such obligations include conditionally enforceable obligations and obligation with conditioned performance. The obligation from the conditional transaction is not conditional: the obligation from the transaction with a suspensive condition, arising at the onset of the condition, is subject to unconditional execution. Also the obligation from the transaction with the cancelling condition arises at the moment of its commission, and therefore it is also a subject to unconditional execution, although it ceases when the condition occurs.
The admissibility of potestative and mixed conditions is proved in the article. At the same time the paper indicates that its limits are dictated by the need to limit the dispositive freedom of turnover participants in the formulation of the relevant conditions in the contract. First of all, there is a general restriction to prevent the violation of equality of rights and legally protected interests of the parties to the contract and the rights and lawful interests of other participants of turnover. In addition, there is a special restriction — potestative and mixed conditions, which are prohibited if they distort the very construction of the contractual law. In this case, the law should put an obstacle by defining a bad faith of the subject, which depends on the will, if the obligation's existence or performance is put.

Keywords: conditional transaction, conditional obligation, conditionally enforceable obligation, obligation with conditional performance, random conditions, potestative conditions, mixed conditions.

For citation: Gruzdev V. V. Conditional Transactions in the Statics and Dynamics of Civil Circulation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 9, pp. 68—79. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.107 (In Russ.)

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■ CRIMINAL LAW AND CRIMINOLOGY

Essential Elements of a Criminal Community (Criminal Organization) in the Context of a New Note to Article 210 of the Russian Criminal Code

O. S. Kapinus

University of Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117638, Russian Federation
E-mail: niigp@msk.rsnet.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.108

Abstract. The article deals with the problems of applying article 210 of the Russian Criminal Code. It is noted that investigative authorities often impute article 210 even in the absence of elements of a criminal community (criminal organization). The existence of such actions is confirmed by expert assessments, analysis of judicial statistics and law enforcement practice in specific criminal cases.
As a result of the research, the prerequisites for an extended interpretation of the essential elements of a criminal community (criminal organization) were identified, and various solutions to the problem were considered. A critical assessment of the new note to article 210 of the Russian Criminal Code (introduced by Federal law No. 73-FZ of April 1, 2020) is presented; it is proved that this novel has only declarative meaning and it is not able to influence law enforcement practice. The reform of article 210 is carried out exclusively in the interests of the business community, although the problem of arbitrary application of this article 210 also affects other persons who do not participate in business activities, which is confirmed by judicial statistics.
The author proposed to adjust the evaluation criteria of sustainability and well-structured criminal group: in assessing the sustainability of the criminal group, its structure must take into account only those relations, communication and interaction between the partners, which was manifested in the joint commission of a crime; may not be considered as a stability criterion for a criminal group related, friendly or other personal, industrial, labor, economic relations between the partners, their long acquaintance, hanging out; the organizational and staff structure of a legal entity, state body, local self-government body, state and municipal institution in which the accomplices carried out labor and (or) economic activities cannot be taken into account as a criterion for the structuring of a criminal group.

Keywords: criminal community, criminal organization, complicity in a crime, qualification of crimes.

For citation: Kapinus O. S. Essential Elements of a Criminal Community (Criminal Organization) in the Context of a New Note to Article 210 of the Russian Criminal Code. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 9, pp. 80—90. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.108 (In Russ.)

References

Andretsova A. Stat'ya 210 UK RF: tendentsii pravoprimeneniya i otsenka novykh zakonodatel'nykh izmeneniy. Available at: https://zakon.ru/blog/2020/05/18/statya_210_uk_rf_tendencii_pravoprimeneniya_i_ocenka_novyh_zakonodatelnyh_izmenenij.

Biznes-ombudsmen nashel podvodnye kamni v novoy redaktsii stat'i ob OPS. Interfaks, 2020, April 2. Available at: https://yandex.ru/turbo/s/interfax.ru/russia/702089.

Praktika primeneniya stat'i 210 UK RF po ugolovnym delam v otnoshenii predprinimateley: sbornik matererialov nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii (Moskva, 1 oktyabrya 2019 goda). Ed. by O. S. Kapinus, K. V. Kamchatov, E. V. Velikaya. Moscow, 2020.

Ugolovnoe presledovanie predprinimateley. Problemy i predlozheniya (po materialam obrashcheniy v adres Upolnomochennykh po zashchite prav predprinimateley). Prilozhenie k dokladu Prezidentu Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Moscow, 2019.

Yani P. S. The Connection of a Crime with Entrepreneurial Activities. Zakonnost', 2019, no. 11, pp. 42—46. (In Russ.)

■ JUDICIARY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT

The Role of Judicial Argumentation in the Evolution of Legislation and Law Enforcement

Kh. I. Hajiyev

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: khanlar9999@gmail.com

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.109

Abstract. The growing interest in legal argumentation, which plays an important role in the formation of law and the development of legal practice, is associated with the transformation of views on the tasks that a judge should perform in the modern world. The historically formed approach has been systematically transformed by the convergence of legal systems and the natural need to use the achievements of each of them, which implies the expansion of judicial discretion and the ability to use the freedom for the up-to-date interpretation of legal norms by appealing to convincing and socially meaningful arguments. The judge is considered not just as the “mouth of the law”, which automatically deduces decisions based on the assessment of facts and the establishment of a legal norm. He/she becomes the creator of law, determining the meaning of the applied rule and discovering new meanings of the interpreted norm not just on the basis of the analyzed arguments, but also on the context of a particular case in combination with the peculiarities of the time in which he/she lives, actively referring to the method of comparative argumentation. The process of reviewing cases in courts of various jurisdictions is accompanied by judicial argumentation that identifies the needs of judicial practice and legislation aimed at modernizing national law.

Keywords: judicial argumentation, interpretation, law-making, certainty, proportionality, justice, legislation, law, logic, rhetoric.

For citation: Hajiyev Kh. I. The Role of Judicial Argumentation in the Evolution of Legislation and Law Enforcement. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 9, pp. 91—105. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.109 (In Russ.)

References

Allan T. R. S. Constitutional Justice: A Liberal Theory of the Rule of Law. Oxford, 2001.

Allan T. R. S. Interpretation, Injustice, and Integrity. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, vol. 36, iss. 1, Spring 2016, pp. 58—82.

Dworkin R. Law's Empire. London, 1986.

Dzehtsiarou K., O'Mahony C. Evolutive Interpretation of Rights Provisions: A Comparison of the European Court of Human Rights and U. S. Supreme Court. Columbia Humans Rights Law Review, 2013, vol. 44 (2).

Groppi T., Spigno I. Constitutional reasoning in the Italian Constitutional Court. Cambridge, 2014.

Hart H. L. A. The Concept of Law. Oxford, 1961.

Khabrieva T. Y. Cyclic Normative Arrays in Law. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 12, pp. 5—18. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.12.1 (In Russ.)

Klatt M. Legal Argumentation and the Rule of Law. Hague, 2016.

Lazarev V. V., Fursov D. A. Establishing Nature of Law in Judicial Decisions. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2016, no. 5, pp. 5—19. DOI: 10.12737/19086 (In Russ.)

McCormick N. Argumentation and Interpretation in Law. Ratio Juris, vol. 6, iss. 1, March 1993, pp. 467—480.

Perelman Ch. Logique juridique. Nouvelle rhétorique. Dalloz; Paris, 1976.

Sauveplanne J. G. Codified and Judge Made Law. The Role of Courts and Legislators in Civil and Common Law Systems. Amsterdam; Oxford; New York, 1982.

Slaughter A. M. A Typology of Transjudicial Communication. University of Richmond Law Review, 1944, vol. 29, pp. 99—137.

Wasserstrom R. A. The Judicial Decision: Toward a Theory of Legal Justification. Stanford University Press, 1961, pp. 1578—1582.

Zor'kin V. D. Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation: Doctrine and Practice. Moscow, 2017. (In Russ.)

The Phenomenon of Popular Participation in the Soviet Model of Justice and Its Continuity in the Post-Soviet Space

A. V. Gavrilova

Law Institute, Kemerovo State University, Kemerovo 650043, Russian Federation
E-mail: avgavrilova2019@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.110

Abstract. The article analyzes the forms of public participation in court proceedings, the presence of which determines the phenomenon of the Soviet model of justice.
The aim of the work is a historical and legal study of various forms of popular participation in the administration of justice in the Soviet period of Russian statehood and the degree of their continuity in the post-Soviet space. The objectives of the study are to study the content and evolution of popular representation in Soviet Russia. The author assesses the mixed model of legal proceedings, which consists in the joint consideration of the case by the people's judge and people's assessors, justifies the rejection of jury trial as an alternative form of people's participation in justice in the Soviet period. The essence of the friendly courts considered as a manifestation of paternalism of the state in relation to citizens is revealed. Features of Institute of public prosecutors and defenders in the Soviet period of history of the Russian statehood are defined. The article presents the periodization of the activities of public prosecutors and defenders, which allows revealing the degree and actionality of their participation in justice, depending on the content of socio-cultural transformations of the Soviet political system.
The study used a set of comparative legal methods: the diachronic method allowed to compare the basics of people's participation in legal proceedings in the Soviet and modern periods; the synchronous method made it possible to compare the legal reality of Russia with other countries. By means of the problem-chronological method the essential features of the people's representation in civil and criminal proceedings, determining the place and role of this social practice in the proceedings, are investigated. The formal legal method contributed to the analysis and interpretation of the norms, the implementation of which led to the transformation of public representation, based on the goals and objectives of the new socio-cultural programs.
The analysis of modern legislation to identify the continuity of the Soviet model of justice in the former Soviet republics led to the conclusion about the partial preservation of the institutions of people's assessors, public prosecutors and defenders and the complete rejection of the activities of friendly courts throughout the post-Soviet space.

Keywords: people's judge, people's assessor, juror, friendly court, public prosecutor, public defender, mixed model of justice.

For citation: Gavrilova A. V. The Phenomenon of Popular Participation in the Soviet Model of Justice and Its Continuity in the Post-Soviet Space. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 9, pp. 108—119. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.110 (In Russ.)

References

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Court of the USSR. Ed. by L. N. Smirnov et al. Moscow, 1977. 384 p. (In Russ.)

Gavrilov S. O., Mishchenko L. V. Development of Public Prosecution System in Formation of the Soviet Political Regime (1917 — Early 1920s). Bulletin of Kemerovo State University, 2012, no. 4-1 (52), pp. 32—36. (In Russ.)

Gavrilova A. V., Gavrilov S. O. History of human rights activities. Kemerovo, 2017. 302 p. (In Russ.)

Gavrilova A. V., Kozlova N. V. Educational qualification as a criterion of professionalism of personnel in the law enforcement system in the Soviet state. Modern scientific thought, 2017, no. 6, pp. 218—225. (In Russ.)

Kozlov Yu. D., Sheynin Kh. B. People's assessors-equal judges. 2nd ed. Moscow, 1967. 72 p. (In Russ.)

Lawyer's notes on criminal justice reform. Available at: https://www.gazeta.uz/ru/2019/03/14/criminal-justice/. (In Russ.)

Lyakhov Yu. A., Malina M. A. The Essence of the constitutional right of a citizen to participate in the administration of justice. North Caucasus Legal Vestnik, 2019, no. 1, pp. 130—138. (In Russ.)

Marchenko M. N. Soviet and post-Soviet state (comparative legal research). Moscow, 2018. 368 p. (In Russ.)

Mar'in A. E. Osobennosti razvitiya suda narodnykh zasedateley v Rossiyskoy Federatsii v 1991—2004 gody. Istoriya gosudarstva i prava, 2013, no. 12.

Petrova N. E. Private and subsidiary prosecution. Samara, 2004. 213 p. (In Russ.)

Radutnaya N. V. Juror in criminal proceedings. Russian Justitia, 1994, no. 3, pp. 2—5. (In Russ.)

Rudenko V. N. Institute of lots in the formation of the composition of the scheffen courts in Germany. Nauchnyj ezhegodnik Instituta filosofii i prava Ural'skogo otdeleniya Rossijskoj akademii nauk = Scientific Yearbook of The Institute of philosophy and law of the Ural branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2010, no. 10, pp. 417—426. (In Russ.)

Rudenko V. N. Participation of citizens in the administration of justice in the modern world. Yekaterinburg, 2011. 644 p. (In Russ.)

Savinova A. V. The Problem of implementing the Institute of arbitration assessors in Russia: the experience of Germany and China. International Journal of Humanities and Natural Sciences, 2019, no. 10-2 (37), pp. 142—147. (In Russ.)

Shatkovskaya T. V. Tradition and Modernization in Law: Comparative-Legal Aspect. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2014, no. 4 (208), pp. 45—56. DOI: 10.12737/2918 (In Russ.)

Shukyurov A. T. Political Causes of Abolition of the Institution of the Jury Memebers by the Bolsheviks. University proceedings. Volga region. Social Sciences, 2014, no. 2 (30), pp. 37—42. (In Russ.)

Tarasov A. A., Garifullina O. R. Popular participation in justice: issues of theory, history and current state in post-Soviet States. Bulletin of TSULBP, 2011, no. 1 (45), pp. 12—25. (In Russ.)

Vaslyaeva N. L. Sud prisyazhnykh: dostoinstva i nedostatki. Gosudarstvo i pravo v XXI veke, 2017, no. 2.

Yarmots E. N. Participation of citizens in the activities of the court for the administration of justice at the present stage of development of the Belarusian state. Vestnik of Polotsk State University, Series D, 2016, pp. 168—171. (In Russ.)

■ LAND LAW AND ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

Features of Legal Regulation of the Forest Use on Lands of Various Categories

Yu. I. Shupletsova

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: ecology10@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.111

Abstract. Given the exhaustion of opportunities for economic growth in Russia, based on extensive exploitation of raw materials, against the background of the formation of the digital economy and the emergence of a limited group of leading countries with new production technologies and focused on the use of renewable resources, it is urgent to conduct legal research on the targeted and effective use of such natural resources in Russia as forests and land on which they are located. When anthropogenic loads on the environment increase to the scale that threatens the reproduction of natural resources as a result of their inefficient use, it is necessary to give a timely assessment of the legal risks of loss of the ecological function performed by forests, due to the presence of gaps and conflicts of legislation in the studied area. In this regard, it is also relevant to determine the priorities of branches of legislation in regulating relations related to the use of forests located on lands of various categories.
Taking into account the goals and objectives of scientific research defined by the strategy of scientific and technological development of the Russian Federation, approved by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation on December 1, 2016. No. 642, the result of the ongoing study of the legal regime of forests and land plots on which they are located should contribute to the preparation of an effective response of Russian society to major challenges, taking into account the interaction of man and nature, man and technology, and social institutions at the current stage of global development, including, first of all, using such methods of legal science as comparativehistorical, methods of analysis and comparison, which will improve the quality of the research by structuring the material in accordance with the system connections and focusing on the individual structural elements of the system.
The main results of the research can be attributed, first of all, to the identification of features of legal regulation of the forest use on lands of various categories.

Keywords: forests, forest legislation, land categories, land plots.

For citation: Shupletsova Yu. I. Features of Legal Regulation of the Forest Use on Lands of Various Categories. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 9, pp. 120—133. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.111 (In Russ.)

References

Erofeev B. V. Soviet forest law. Moscow, 1983. 47 p. (In Russ.)

Eyriyan G. N. Land plot as an object of use. Vestnik Permskogo Universiteta. Juridicheskie Nauki = Perm University Herald, Juridical Sciences, 2019, iss. 45, pp. 540—563. DOI: 10.17072/1995-4190-2019-45-540-563 (In Russ.)

Galinovskaya E. A. Legal implementation lease agreements for forest site included in the border settlement. Imushchestvennye otnosheniya v Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 2016, no. 8, pp. 45—55. (In Russ.)

Gavva A. A. The institute of private ownership of a land lot in modern civil law. Ufa, 2014. 160 p. (In Russ.)

Gorokhov D. B., Shunaeva D. D,. Hunting Areas: Ratio of Legal Regulation and Actual Situation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 5, pp. 119—132. DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_5_11 (In Russ.)

Kaverin A. M., Krasnov N. I., Nemirovskiy E. I., Syrodoev N. A. Forestry legislation. Moscow, 1978. 111 p. (In Russ.)

Kichigin N. V. City Forests: Regime of Protection and Use. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2011, no. 6, pp. 28—34. (In Russ.)

Krasnov N. I. New Soviet forest legislation. Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo, 1978, no. 7, pp. 37—46. (In Russ.)

Krassov O. I. Legal regime of lands of the state forest fund. Cand. diss. thesis. Moscow, 1978. 18 p. (In Russ.)

Mazurov A. V. Commentary on the new Forest Code of the Russian Federation and the Federal Law “On the Enactment of the Forest Code of the Russian Federation”. Moscow, 2007. 296 p. (In Russ.)

Minina E. L. Development Tendencies in Legislation on Plant World. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2016, no. 5, pp. 108—117. DOI: 10.12737/19221 (In Russ.)

Narysheva N. G. Development of legislation on city forests. Ekologicheskoe pravo, 2012, no. 1, pp. 7—14. (In Russ.)

Petrov V. V. Object and subject-matters of legal protection of nature in the USSR. Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo, 1976, no. 4, pp. 58—64. (In Russ.)

Polyanskaya G. N. Notion of forest relations in the all-Union and union-republican's forest legislation. Uchenye zapiski VNIISZ, 1972, iss. 27, pp. 36—51. (In Russ.)

Polyanskaya G. N. Protection of state ownership of forests. Moscow, 1956. 252 p. (In Russ.)

Polyanskaya G. N. Select. Ed. by S. A. Bogolyubov, E. N. Mukhina. Moscow, 2010. 288 p. (In Russ.)

Polyanskaya G. N. State ownership of forests in the USSR. Moscow, 1959. 407 p. (In Russ.)

Shupletsova Yu. I. Legal regime of the earth of the forest stock. Agrarnoe i zemel'noe pravo, 2009, no. 10, pp. 119—122. (In Russ.)

Shupletsova Yu. I. Legal regulation of forest relation in the Russian Federation. Moscow, 2018. 216 p. (In Russ.)

Shupletsova Yu. I. Prospects and Directions of Development of the Forest Legislation of the Russian Federation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2015, no. 3, pp. 72—79. DOI: 10.12737/7882 (In Russ.)

Sokolova A. K. Legislative preconditions for the formation of legal protection of flora objects. Problemy zakonnosti, 2014, no. 125, pp. 129—137. (In Russ.)

State (national) report on the state and use of land in the Russian Federation in 2018. Ed. by V. V. Abramchenko, G. Yu. Elizarova, N. S. Samoylova et al. Moscow, 2019. 198 p. (In Russ.)

Vorontsova A. A. Some peculiarities of legal regulation of forests (forest plantings) located on the lands of various categories. Ekologicheskoe pravo, 2012, no. 5, pp. 2—7. (In Russ.)

The Role of Public Environmental Inspectors in Ensuring the Protection of the Environmental Rights of Russian Citizens

D. A. Fitsai

Law Institute, Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk 660041, Russian Federation
E-mail: dar.vysotzckaya2010@yandex.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.112

Abstract. The institute of public control in the field of environmental protection in Russia has changed a few times in recent years: there has been an expansion of the subject structure authorized to carry out public environmental control in the Russian Federation, the rights and procedure for organizing the activities of public environmental inspectors have been established, and so on.
The purpose of the research is to analyze the normative legal regulation of the activities of public environmental inspectors, to identify imperfections of the current Russian legislation in this area, to determine the role of public environmental inspectors in ensuring the protection of environmental rights of Russian citizens.
After a brief historical digression, the article analyzes the features of conducting public environmental control by the key subject of its conduct — the public environmental inspector. Based on the results of the assessment, defects in legal regulation in this area were identified: the procedure for interaction of public environmental inspectors with the Russian population n was not defined, the requirements for the content of the register of certificates of public environmental inspectors were not specified, there were no grounds for refusing to extend the term of office of a public environmental inspector, and measures for material and moral incentives for the activities of public environmental inspectors were not fixed. The author formulated specific proposals to eliminate the identified shortcomings in the legal regulation of the activities of public environmental inspectors in the Russian Federation.

Keywords: public environmental control, public environmental inspector, protection of environmental rights, environmental protection, state environmental supervision, shortcomings of legal regulation.

For citation: Fitsai D. A. The Role of Public Environmental Inspectors in Ensuring the Protection of the Environmental Rights of Russian Citizens. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 9, pp. 134—143. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.112 (In Russ.)

References

Cherepanova M. V. Public environmental inspection: history and modernity. Molodoy uchenyy, 2014, no. 21, pp. 81—83. (In Russ.)

Chkhutiashvili L. V. Public environmental control: problems and prospects. Pravovaya informatika, 2015, no. 4, pp. 55—58. (In Russ.)

Commentary to the Federal law of January 10, 2002 No. 7-FZ “On environmental protection”. Ed. by O. L. Dubovik. 2016. 815 p. Access from SPS “Garant”. (In Russ.)

Korobova A. P., Bakoyan M. M. Modern problems of public and state environmental control. Sovremennye nauchnye issledovaniya i razrabotki, 2018, no. 4, pp. 286—289. (In Russ.)

Scientific and practical commentary to the Federal law of January 10, 2002 No. 7-FZ “On environmental protection”. Ed. by N. I. Khludeneva. Moscow, 2018. 330 p. (In Russ.)

Zhochkina I. N. Public environmental control: new approaches to legal regulation of relations. Sotsial'no-politicheskie nauki, 2018, no. 6, pp. 54—59. (In Russ.)

■ SCIENTIFIC FUNDAMENTALS OF COUNTERING CORRUPTION

Improvement of the Procedure for Monitoring Expenditures and the Mechanism for Applying Property Purchased with Unconfirmed Income to the State Revenue

A. M. Tsirin, V. V. Sevalnev

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: artemtsirine@yandex.ru; sevalnev77@gmail.com

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.113

Abstract. The proposed article is devoted to the study of special anti-corruption measures aimed at improving the procedure for monitoring expenditures and the mechanism for applying to the income of the Russian Federation property for which no information is provided confirming its acquisition on the basis of legitimate income. Legal, organizational, managerial and information mechanisms formed by the state not only multiply the risk of negative consequences for corrupt officials at all levels of government, but also help to minimize and eliminate the consequences of corruption offenses. However, for a long time, little attention has been paid in doctrine and law enforcement to the mechanism for minimizing and eliminating the consequences of these violations.
In the course of improving the state anti-corruption policy in the Russian legal space, new subinstitutions of anti-corruption legislation have emerged. In particular, one of these subinstitutions is a mechanism for monitoring the expenditures of certain categories of persons. In the proposed study, the authors develop the ideas previously expressed about the complex nature of the mechanism for controlling expenditures of certain categories of persons, focusing on the entire mechanism and its constituent elements of the circulation of property to the income of the Russian Federation, in respect of which no information is provided confirming its acquisition on legal income, its procedural and organizational aspects.
The authors conduct an analysis of law enforcement practice, confirming the need to make changes to the current legislation in the field of anti-corruption, and suggest separate areas for improving the legislation on control of expenditures. These areas include: strengthening control over expenses of persons who have been dismissed from the state or municipal service, or dismissed from their current position; applying to the state's revenue property purchased on third (front), including legal entities; addition of civil law provisions on the admissibility of the division of property in common joint or shared ownership, not only by agreement of co-owners, but also by virtue of the law, etc.

Keywords: control, expenses, conversion to income, property, anti-corruption, legislation, legality.

For citation: Tsirin A. M., Sevalnev V. V. Improvement of the Procedure for Monitoring Expenditures and the Mechanism for Applying Property Purchased with Unconfirmed Income to the State Revenue. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 9, pp. 144—156. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.113 (In Russ.)

References

Baranenkova I. V., Mironov O. I. About some problems of responsibility of the military personnel for violation of the Federal law “On control of compliance of expenses of persons holding public positions, and other persons with their incomes” of December 3, 2012 No. 230-FZ. Pravo v Vooruzhennykh Silakh, 2014, no. 8. (In Russ.)

Besschasnyy S. A., Skorik V. N. The implementation of the institute of control of compliance of expenses of public servants and other persons with their income. Zakonnost', 2015, no. 11. (In Russ.)

Genealogical information in the state archives of Russia: reference book. Ed. by S. N. Romanova. Moscow, 1996. 280 p. (In Russ.)

Glazyrin T. S., Kozlov T. L., Kolosova N. M. et al. Conflict of interests in the state and municipal service, in entities activity: causes, prevention and reconciliation. Ed. by A. F. Nozdrachev. Moscow, 2016. 224 p. (In Russ.)

Isakova N. A. Procedure for applying to the state revenue of property in respect of which, in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation on anti-corruption, evidence of its acquisition on legitimate income is not provided. Leningradskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal, 2015, no. 3, pp. 86—92. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y., Chernogor N. N. The Law in the Conditions of Digital Reality. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 1, pp. 85—102. DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_1_7 (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y., Kapustin A. Ya., Gabov A. V., Chernogor N. N. Conflict of Interest: Nature, Prevention, Social Regulation. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2018, no. 3 (70), pp. 5—12. DOI: 10.12737/art.2018.3.1 (In Russ.)

Konstantinov A. Corrupt Russia. Moscow, 2006. 640 p. (In Russ.)

Sevalnev V. V. The Legislation in the Sphere of Counteraction of Corruption: Russia and China (Comparative Legal Aspect). Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2017, no. 3 pp. 95—100. DOI: 10.12737/article_593fc343c6e286.74734563 (In Russ.)

Tsirin A. M., Sevalnev V. V. The Procedure for Monitoring the Expenses of Certain Categories of Persons: Problems and Its' Solutions. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 7, pp. 152—161. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.7.13 (In Russ.)

■ YOUNG SCIENTIST’S TRIBUNE

Reform of the Judicial System for Consideration Disputes with UN Employees: 10 Years Later

A. N. Popova

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation
E-mail: Popova-Alexandra.N@yandex.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.114

More than 10 years have passed since the reform of the judicial system for consideration disputes with UN employees, and considerable empirical material has been accumulated on its results, which makes it possible to generalize them, as well as to compare the initial goals and achieve the final results of this reform. The article analyzes the current consequences of such a reform, and examines various aspects of the functioning of the modern two-tier judicial system for resolving disputes of UN employees.
The purpose of the article is to assess whether the reform was able to solve the main problems of the UN dispute procedure with its employees and how effective the activities of the established dispute Tribunal and the UN Appeals Tribunal are at present. An attempt is being made to analyze the competence and composition of these tribunals, to assess the independence and impartiality of their judges, as well as the speed with which the tribunals resolve disputes involving international employees.
The methodological basis of the research consists of general philosophical, general scientific and special methods. A special role is played by methods of analysis, synthesis, comparative legal and logical research methods.
Conclusion: the new judicial system for resolving disputes with UN employees has given the tribunals a wide range of powers, has been able to ensure the professionalism of the judiciary, independence and impartiality of the permanent judges of the tribunals. However, the time frame for the consideration of disputes by the UN dispute Tribunal, in General, still remains long, despite the obvious reduction in the time frame for making decisions by the Appeals Tribunal. The new system of administrative tribunals remains inaccessible to a significant number of persons who are not officials of the UN Secretariat but are in a relationship of employment with the organization.

Keywords: international servants, international administrative tribunal, United Nations Administrative Tribunal, United Nations Dispute Tribunal, United Nations Appeals Tribunal.

For citation: Popova A. N. Reform of the Judicial System for Consideration Disputes with UN Employees: 10 Years Later. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 9, pp. 157—171. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.114 (In Russ.)

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■ REVIEWS

Review of the Book: Commentary to Federal Law of December 27, 2018 No. 498-FZ “On Responsible Treatment of Animals and on Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation” (article-by-article) / S. A. Bogolubov, D. B. Gorokhov, N. V. Kichigin et al.; ed. by D. B. Gorokhov. Мoscow, 2020. 280 p.  Pdf 16

O. A. Kuznetsova, G. N. Eyriyan

O. A. Kuznetsovaa, b, G. N. Eyriyana
aPerm State University, Perm 614990, Russian Federation
bPerm Institute, Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, Perm 614012, Russian Federation
E-mail: kuznetsova_psu@mail.ru; eiriyan_psu@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.115

For citation: Kuznetsova O. A., Eyriyan G. N. Review of the Book: Commentary to Federal Law of December 27, 2018 No. 498-FZ “On Responsible Treatment of Animals and on Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation” (article-by-article) / S. A. Bogolubov, D. B. Gorokhov, N. V. Kichigin et al.; ed. by D. B. Gorokhov. Мoscow, 2020. 280 p. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 9, pp. 172—177. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.115 (In Russ.)

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