Contents of issue # 6/2020


Individual and State Security in the Digital Age: Political and Legal Aspect  Pdf 16

Ovchinnikov A. I. 

Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don 344006, Russian Federation

Abstract. In connection with the developing digital technologies, the state is actively developing and stimulating a program of digitalization and technological modernization of the economy, public administration and regulation. Meanwhile, in the process digitalizing public administration, some risks and challenges to national security (of the individual, society and state) should be considered, as this process is important for the development of legislation and by-laws.
The aim of the article is to identify some negative trends in the state digitalization through the digital globalization, to summarize the results of a study of the impact of global digitalization or digital globalization on the legal support of national security. These trends seriously affect the realization of the right to security within human rights. It becomes especially vulnerable in the context of the emergence of new actors in political and economic relations — transnational corporations, network corporations, the blogosphere. This analysis allows us to highlight the main directions of legal support of national security, which integral part is the digital or information security of the individual in the 21st Century.
The result in this study is that a hypothesis is put forward, where digital globalization creates new opportunities for the economy, but exposes risks to the state, social and individual security to previously unknown risks and challenges. The application of approaches and methods of forecasting, social constructivism, philosophical, legal and systematic analysis of legal support of national security allow us to obtain a result that confirms that digitalization exacerbates structural defects of the domestic system of national security, changes the underlying meanings and ideas, on which the modern state and society are based, transforms the goals of justice and the search for justice when introducing artificial intelligence into law enforcement battening activities.

Keywords: national security, digital society, digital state, digital globalization, digital security, Information Security, artificial intelligence, justice.

For citation: Ovchinnikov A. I. Individual and State Security in the Digital Age: Political and Legal Aspect. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 6, pp. 5—21. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.064


Abbasova E. V., Vasil'ev V. A. Labor law in digital environment: problems of integration. Rossiyskaya yustitsiya, 2019, no. 4, pp. 16—18. (In Russ.)

Bagoyan E. G. Information Security and Application of Blockchain Technologies: Foreign Experience and the Need for Legal Regulation in the Russian Federation. Yurist, 2019, no. 3. DOI: 10.18572/1812-3929-2019-3-42-49, pp. 42—49. (In Russ.)

Baig Z. A., Szewczyk P., Valli C. et al. Future challenges for smart cities: Cyber-security and digital forensics. Digital Investigation, 2017, no. 22. Available at:

Balashova A. Oracle has set a sales record in Russia amid import substitution software. Why government agencies and state-owned companies continue to purchase American software. Available at: (In Russ.)

Baranova N. What is digital security: terms and technologies. Available at: (In Russ.)

Beketov A. Artificial intelligence in court. Available at: (In Russ.)

Berman G. Dzh. Western tradition of law: the era of formation. Moscow, 1994. 590 p. (In Russ.)

Dmitrieva O. Without a piece of paper — a man. Available at: (In Russ.)

Dufva T., Dufva M. Grasping the future of the digital society. Futures, 2019, vol. 107. Available at:

Efremov A. A. Problems of realization of the conception of Digital Security Risk Management of OECD in Russian legislation. Informatsionnoe pravo, 2016, no. 4, pp. 25—28. (In Russ.)

Ellison D., Venter H. An ontology for digital security and digital forensics investigative techniques (Conference Paper). Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security (ICCWS2016). Boston, 2016.

Gaydenko P. P., Davydov Yu. N. History and Rationality: The Sociology of M. Weber and the Weber Renaissance. Moscow, 1991. 367 p. (In Russ.)

Guy J.-S. Digital technology, digital culture and the metric/nonmetric distinction. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 2019, vol. 145. Available at:

Holtel S. Artificial Intelligence Creates a Wicked Problem for the Enterprise. Procedia Computer Science, 2016, vol. 99. Available at:

Janeček V. Ownership of personal data in the Internet of Things. Computer Law & Security Review, 2018, vol. 34, iss. 5. Available at:

Kadar M., Moise I. A., Colomba C. Innovation Management in the Globalized Digital Society. Procedia — Social and Behavioral Science, 2014, vol. 143. Available at:;

Kol'dina A. Fresh head. Available at: (In Russ.)

Kupriyanovskiy V. P., Utkin N. A., Nikolaev D. E. et al. On Localization of British Standards for Smart Cities. International Journal of Open Information Technologies, 2016, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 13—21. (In Russ.)

Kuptsova M. Rights are the head of all. Available at: (In Russ.)

Lapshin A. O. Globalization and digital society: notes in the margin. Vlast', 2019, no. 1, pp. 63—68. (In Russ.)

McKinsey Global Institute. Digital Globalization: the new era of global flows. Executive Summary. 2016. March. Available at:

Orlov P. Electronic boss. Available at: (In Russ.)

Ovchinnikov A. I., Samarin A. A. Perspectives of the modern law development: extraterritoriality, transboundary, network plurality. Filosofiya prava, 2015, no. 3 (70), pp. 8—14. (In Russ.)

Salomatin K., Burtin Sh. Clockwork Mandarin. Prisoners of Chinese camps talk about the society of the future. Russkiy reporter, 2019, no. 10 (475), pp. 13—22 (In Russ.)

Smirnova K. M. The Information Security Issue in View of the Use of the Internet of Things in Medicine. Meditsinskoe pravo, 2019, no. 1. pp. 31—37. (In Russ.)

Sokolov I. A., Kupriyanovskiy V. P., Alen'kov V. V. et al. On digital security of smart cities. International Journal of Open Information Technologies, 2018, no. 1, pp. 104—118. (In Russ.)

Sukharenko A. N. Legislative support for information security in Russia. Rossiyskaya yustitsiya, 2018, no. 2, pp. 2—5. (In Russ.)

Zlobin N. Pravilo “myagkoy sily”. Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2013, March 29.

Adobe pdf 24  Full text in Russian

Legality and Expediency in Postmodern Society: Revising of the Existing Classical Model  Pdf 16

Zaloilo M. V.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

Abstract. In different years in a particular state, especially in transition periods associated with the change of paradigms of state, social and legal development, the problem of correlation between the principles of legality and expediency becomes more acute. At present, when postmodern society enters the era of the sixth technological order, the legal regulation of public relations under the influence of their dynamics is rapidly updated and transformed, but still has a rather “lagging” character; defects in law remain; the gap in legislation on technological development is stated; there are other kinds of imperfections in the normative legal array. In the current circumstances, the problem of correlation between legality and expediency becomes particularly relevant.
The purpose of this research is to determine the correlation between legality and expediency in modern post-industrial society. In accordance with this goal, through formal-legal, historical, formallogical methods, modeling and forecasting methods, as well as post-classical legal methodology (hermeneutics, synergetics of law), the article analyzes the classical and modern understanding of these principles; the legality and expediency are examined in the aspect of changing of legal cycles and paradigms of legal development; the Constitution of the Russian Federation of 1993 is considered as the basis of legality in the modern Russian state; the characteristics of postmodern society are given; the problems of legal development and advanced law-making in post-industrial society are identified; in the aspect of strengthening of the principle of legality, the constitutional reform that has been carried out in Russia since the beginning of 2020 is analyzed.
Based on the research the author makes conclusions about changes of the role and transformation of the law as the main source of law corresponding to modern realities, the understanding of legality is modeled, and the correlation of this principle with the principle of expediency is predicted in the conditions of updating the normative legal array during the transition to the sixth technological order.

Keywords: legality, legal order, expediency, legal values, constitution, constitutional reform, interpretation of constitution, postmodern, postindustrial society, sixth technological order, fragmentation of legal regulation, gaps.

For citation: Zaloilo M. V. Legality and Expediency in Postmodern Society: Revising of the Existing Classical Model. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 6, pp. 22—37. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.065


Abramova A. I. Law Enforcement and Its Impact on the Development of Legislation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2015, no. 12, pp. 18—27. DOI: 10.12737/16626. (In Russ.)

Aleksandrov N. G. Legality and Legal Relations in Soviet Society. Moscow, 1955. 176 p. (In Russ.)

Alekseev S. S. Problems of Theory of Law. Sverdlovsk, 1972. Vol. 1. 396 p. (In Russ.)

Baranova M. V. Expediency as a Factor of Effectiveness of Legal Influence. The Principle of Legality: Modern Interpretations. Ed. by M. A. Belyaev, V. V. Denisenko, A. A. Malinovskiy. Moscow, 2019. Pp. 89—104. (In Russ.)

Bavsun M. V., Martsev A. I. Expediency in Criminal Law. Pravovedenie, 2003, no. 4, pp. 94—106. (In Russ.)

Bezina A. K. Activity of the Courts on Concretization of Law and Its Role in the Development of Soviet Law: Selected Works. Vol. 1. Moscow, 2012, pp. 20—27. (In Russ.)

Bezina A., Lazarev V. The Concretization of Law in Court Practice. Sovetskaya yustitsiya. 1968, no. 2, pp. 6—7. (In Russ.)

Chkhikvadze V. M. State, democracy, legality: Lenin's ideas and modernity. Moscow, 1967. 503 p. (In Russ.)

General Theory of Legal Order. Development of Legal Order. Vol. 1. Ed. by N. N. Chernogor. Moscow, 2019. 348 p. (In Russ.)

Guk P. A. Concretization of Principles and Norms of Law by Judicial Authorities. Concretization of Law: Theoretical and Practical Problems: Materials of the IX International Scientific and Practical Conference. Moscow, 2015. Pp. 341—345. (In Russ.)

Irkhin Yu. V. Society and Policy in Postmodern Wonderland: Opinions, Attitudes, Analysis. Politiya, 2005, no. 4, pp. 136—160. (In Russ.)

Kazakevich T. A. Expediency and purpose in social development. Vestnik LGU, 1963, no. 23, pp. 52—63. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y. Constitution as Basis of Legality in the Russian Federation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2009, no. 3, pp. 3—11. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y. Cyclic Normative Arrays in Law. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 12, pp. 5—18. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.12.1. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y. Law Facing the Challenges of Digital Reality. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 9, pp. 5—16. DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_9_1. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y. Paradigms of Constitutional Reform. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2015, no. 5, pp. 820—830. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y., Chernogor N. N. The Law in the Conditions of Digital Reality. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 1, pp. 85—102. DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_1_7. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y. Constitutional Reform in Today's Context. Moscow, 2016. 320 p. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y. Technological topics of global development in the focus of legal doctrine. World development: problems of predictability and manageability: XIX international Likhachev scientific readings, may 22—24, 2019. St. Petersburg, 2019. Pp. 227—231. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y., Andrichenko L. V. Constitutional reforms in the post-soviet space: development trends. Vestnik Permskogo Universiteta. Juridicheskie Nauki = Perm University Herald, Juridical Sciences, 2017, no. 3, pp. 272—287. (In Russ.)

Legality in the Russian Federation. Moscow, 2008. 624 p. (In Russ.)

Lenin V. I. Complete works. Vol. 45. Available at: (accessed 14.02.2020). (In Russ.)

Lukasheva E. A. The socialist legal consciousness and legality. Moscow, 1973. 344 p. (In Russ.)

Nedbaylo P. E. Questions of validity and expediency of applying of the norms of Soviet law. Voprosy obshchey teorii sovetskogo prava. Moscow, 1960, pp. 309—344. (In Russ.)

On Normative Legal Acts in the Russian Federation (initiative draft of the Federal law). 5th ed. Ed. by T. Y. Khabrieva, Yu. A. Tikhomirov. Moscow, 2019. 88 p. (In Russ.)

Orlov V. N., Ekimov A. I. The goal in the norm of Soviet law. Pravovedenie, 1968, no. 5, pp. 22—28. (In Russ.)

Rabinovich P. M. Strengthening of the legality — a pattern of socialism. L'vov, 1975. 260 p. (In Russ.)

Romashov R. A. Continuity and cyclicality in Russian law: unity and contradictions. Yuridicheskaya tekhnika, 2011, no. 5, pp. 41—42. (In Russ.)

Samoshchenko I. S. Protection of the regime of legality by the Soviet state. Moscow, 1960. 200 p. (In Russ.)

Shershenevich G. F. General theory of law. Iss. 4. Moscow, 1912. 805 p. (In Russ.)

Strogovich M. S. Socialist legality is an immutable principle of our social life. Moscow, 1969. 46 p. (In Russ.)

The digitalization of law-making: the search for new solutions. Ed. by D. A. Pashentsev. Moscow, 2019. 234 p. (In Russ.)

The Rule of Law: Theory And Practice. Ed. by Yu. A. Tikhomirov, N. V. Subanova. 3rd ed. Moscow, 2017. 400 p. (In Russ.)

Tikhomirov Yu. A. Cycles of legal progress. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2008, no. 10, pp. 15—22. (In Russ.)

Vengerov A. B., Mitskevich A. V. Law and Legality in Economic Activity. Moscow, 1973. 64 p. (In Russ.)

Vlasenko N. A. Problems of Sufficiency of Legal Regulation in the Modern Russian Society. Yuridicheskaya nauka i praktika: Vestnik Nizhegorodskoy akademii MVD Rossii, 2018, no. 1. (In Russ.)

Vlasenko N. A., Zaloilo M. V. Sostoyanie zakonodatel'stva, uroven' zakonodatel'noy kul'tury I standartizatsiya zakonotvorchestva. Yuridicheskaya tekhnika, 2016, no. 10, pp. 41—47. (In Russ.)

Voplenko N. N. Legality and Legitimacy. Novaya pravovaya mysl', 2003, no. 1, pp. 11—14. (In Russ.)

Voplenko N. N. Theoretical and legal content of the category “legality”. Principle of Legality: Modern Interpretations. Ed. by M. A. Belyaev, V. V. Denisenko, A. A. Malinovskiy. Moscow, 2019. Pp. 11—27. (In Russ.)

Zaloilo M. V. Modern Legal Technologies in Law-Making. Ed. by D. A. Pashentsev. Moscow, 2020. 184 p. (In Russ.)

Zaloilo M. V., Pashentsev D. A. National law and order of Russia in the conditions of digitalization. Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo Universiteta. Pravo = Vestnik of Saint Petersburg University. Law, 2019, no. 2, pp. 196—209. (In Russ.)

Adobe pdf 24  Full text in Russian


Legal Mechanisms for Preserving the Ethnocultural Identity of the Peoples of the Russian Federation and the Formation of an All-Russian Civic Identity  Pdf 16

Andrichenko L. V.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

Abstract. The state of interethnic relations is an important indicator of the general political and social stability of the state, the level of existing tolerance in the relations between peoples living on its territory. The state policy of the Russian Federation has always been aimed at preserving the sociocultural characteristics of all the peoples living in it, and this remains one of the priorities of its modern development. At the same time, issues of preserving ethnocultural identity are inextricably linked with another main task, namely, the formation of an all-Russian civic identity. The solution of these problems, which are by no means multidimensional, but systemically determined in nature, is largely determined by the set and content of legal mechanisms, their correct and accurate implementation at each level of public authority.
The purpose of this article is to analyze the existing legal forms of preserving ethnocultural identities that are both territorial and extraterritorial in nature, ensuring the implementation of the main directions of state policy enshrined in the Strategy of State National Policy of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2025, determining their sufficiency and adequacy to the content problems.
Methods: formal-logical, comparative-legal, analysis, synthesis, comparison, generalization.
As a result of the study, both positive aspects and shortcomings of the current level of legal regulation of interethnic relations are shown, some lag of individual legal regulators from modern needs is revealed, and approaches to its elimination are proposed.

Keywords: state national policy, peoples' identity, civic identity, federalism, national-cultural autonomy, ethnic community, indigenous peoples, national languages.

For citation: Andrichenko L. V. Legal Mechanisms for Preserving the Ethnocultural Identity of the Peoples of the Russian Federation and the Formation of an All-Russian Civic Identity. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 6, pp. 38—51. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/ jrl.2020.066


Gradovskiy A. D. The national question in history and in literature. St. Petersburg, 1872. Vol. VI. (In Russ.)

Gumplovich L. General doctrine of the state. Translation from the second German edition with an introductory essay, notes and an additional article. St. Petersburg, 1910. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y. National-Cultural Autonomy in the Russian Federation. Modern Problems of Self-Determination of the Ethnic Groups: Comparative Legal Study. Selected Works: Vol. 3. Monographs. Moscow, 2018. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y., Andrichenko L. V. The interethnic relations as an object of scientific research. Vestnik Rossiyskoy akademii nauk, 2018, vol. 88, no. 10. (In Russ.)

Khludeneva N. I. Defects in the legal regulation of traditional nature management carried out by indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation, and ways to eliminate them. Analysis of the Russian and foreign legal framework, international legal acts, as well as law enforcement practice in the field of protecting the rights of indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation. Moscow, 2019. Pp. 177—202. (In Russ.)

Kistyakovskiy B. A. Social sciences and law. Essays on the methodology of social sciences and the general theory of law. Moscow, 1916. (In Russ.)

Mezhuev V. M. Culture and history. Moscow, 1977. (In Russ.)

Tishkov V. A. Complicating diversity: how to understand and organize it. The cultural complexity of modern nations. Ed. by V. A. Tishkov, E. I. Filippova. Moscow, 2016. (In Russ.)

Vasil'eva L. N. Commentary on the Law of the Russian Federation “On Languages of the Peoples of the Russian Federation” (article by article). Moscow, 2007. (In Russ.)

Weber M. Economy and Society. New York, 1968.

Zasedanie mezhdunarodnogo diskussionnogo kluba “Valday”. 2013. September 19. Available at: http//

Zolotova B. Kh. Culture of interethnic communication: a regional aspect. Cand. diss. thesis. Stavropol, 2004. (In Russ.)

Adobe pdf 24  Full text in Russian

Interpretation of the Constitution of Russia: Historic and Legal Analysis  Pdf 16

Marino I.

Observatory on the Political-Constitutional System of the Russian Federation, Naples, Italy

Abstract. The article, presented here, is devoted to the specific information, concerning the 1993 Russian Federation Constitution composing historical background and its roots. Having been a scientific legal expert of the consequent events, documents and circumstances, the author of the article tried his best to understand how the 1993 Constitution founders' efforts were justified, how their ideas came true and what was to be done for issuing the perfected constitutional text of the main Russian law. Having made an acquaintance of many lawyers and colleagues in Russia and being able to speak Russian fluently, the author interviewed many of the constitutional process participants. The readers might be interested in finding out previously unavailable data, unattainable protocols and exclusive viewpoints of those times. The article is also dedicated to the comparative legal analysis of the Russian Federation Parliament and the Constitutional Court contributions to the constitutional control over the constitutional provisions regulating validity. Different aspects of their activities in the mentioned sphere and their so-called “mutual competition” in the state power mechanism are considered as well. It is said too, that the constitution reforms, held in Russia now are very perspective and timely. In the article it is noticed, that the creators of the latest Russian Constitution in force were absolutely right and displayed their predictability when they stated, that this Constitution would be existing unchangeably for, approximately, twenty five years.

Keywords: Constitution of the Russian Federation, constitutional reforms, constitutional process, law, Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, Parliament.

For citation: Marino I. Interpretation of the Constitution of Russia: Historic and Legal Analysis. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 6, pp. 52—78. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/ jrl.2020.067


Avak'yan S. A. The Constitution of Russia: the Origin, Evolution, Contemporaneity. Moscow, 2000. (In Russ.)

Baglay M. V., Tumanov V. A. The Small Encyclopaedia of the Constitutional Law. Moscow, 1998. (In Russ.)

Baturin Yu. M. The Constitutional Sketches. Moscow, 2008. (In Russ.)

Bobrova N. A. The Newest Anthology for the Constitutionalists. Samara, 2016. (In Russ.)

Extracts from the History of the Russian Federation Constitution Creation. The Constitutional Commission. Transcripts, Materials, Documents (the years of 1990—1993). Ed. by O. G. Rumyantsev. Moscow, 2007—2010. (In Russ.)

Filatov S. A. On Both Sides... Moscow, 2006. (In Russ.)

Kabyshev V. T. Through the Life with Constitution. The Selected Scientific Compositions. Moscow, 2013. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y. The Constitutional Reform in the Modern World. Moscow, 2016. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y. The Interpretation of the Constitution of the Russian Federation: Theory and Practice. Moscow, 1998. (In Russ.)

Kolosova N. M. The Constitutional Liability in the Russian Federation. Moscow, 2000. (In Russ.)

Kovachev D. A. The Essays of the Constitutional Law of the Foreign Countries. Moscow, 1999. (In Russ.)

Kovachev D. A. The Problems of the Constitutional Law. Moscow, 2003. (In Russ.)

Lafitskiy V. I. The Poetry of Law: the Law-Making Epochs from the Ancient Times up to Nowadays. Moscow, 2003. (In Russ.)

Marino I. Some Stages of the Russian Federation Constitutional Court Foundation History. Publichne pravo = Public Law, 2012, no. 1 (5). (In Russ.)

Marino I. The Council of Federation: “The Shakhraij's Model”. Publichne pravo = Public Law, 2013, no. 1 (9). (In Russ.)

Medushevskiy A. N. Democracy and Authoritarianism. The Russian Constitutionalism Through the Perspective of Comparative Outlook. Moscow, 1998. (In Russ.)

Mityukov M. A. The Birth of the Constitution of Russia. The Constitutional Assembly of the year of 1993. The Articles, Performances, Interviews, Documents, Diary and Notepad Entries (1993—2012). Moscow, 2014. (In Russ.)

Shakhray S. M. About the Constitution: The Basic Law as an Instrument of the Legal and Social — Political Transformation, Moscow, 2013. (In Russ.)

Shakhray S. M. The Constitutional Lesson for the School Children (From one of the Basic Law Authors. Konstitutsionnyy vestnik, 2013, no. 3 (21). (In Russ.)

Shakhray S. M. The Unknown Constitution. Moscow, 2013. (In Russ.)

The Constitutional Assembly. Transcripts, Materials, Documents. April, 29 — November, 10, 1993. The Russian Federation President Administration Issue. Ed. by S. A. Filatov, V. S. Chernomyrdin, S. M. Shakhray, Yu. F. Yarov, A. A. Sobchak, V. F. Shumeyko. Moscow, 1995. Vol. 1, 2. (In Russ.)

The Federal Constitutional Law “On the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation”; the Experience of Application and the Perspectives of Perfection (for the 15th Jubilee). The Transcript of the “Round Table” Conference at the Russian Academy of Justice (Moscow, December, 1, 2009). Journal of Constitutional Justice, 2010, no. 1. (In Russ.)

The Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation responds: The Replies to the Legal Requests and Appeals to the Institute, Issued by the State Public Bodies and Social Public Associations. Ed. by S. A. Bogolyubov, M. I. Braginskiy, M. Y. Buloshnikov, V. P. Kashepov, V. N. Litovkin, L. A. Okun'kov. Moscow, 2000. (In Russ.)

The Interview of O. G. Rumyantsev. June, 1996. Available at: http://www.osservatoriorussia. it/elenco.asp. (In Russ.)

The Project — the Constitution (the Basic Law) of the Russian Federation. Izvestiya, 1993, April 30. (In Russ.)

The Transcript of the “Round Table” Conference of the State Duma Constitutional Legislation and State Formation Committee on the Topic: “The Constitutional Assembly of the Year of 1993, as a Form of the Civic Society's Participation in the Preparation of the Russian Federation Constitution”. Konstitutsionnyy vestnik, 2013, no. 3 (21). (In Russ.).

Vitruk N. V. Observance of the Constitution of the Russian Federation as a condition of modernization and progressive development of modern Russia. Sovremennoe obshchestvo i pravo. 2011, no. 1 (2), pp. 3—12. (In Russ.)

Vitruk N. V. The Constitutional Justice. Moscow, 2012. (In Russ.)

Vitruk N. V. The Types of the Legal Proceedings at the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation. Journal of Constitutional Justice, 2009, no. 6, pp. 11—17. (In Russ.)

Zor'kin V. D. Russia and the Constitution in the XXI Century. Moscow, 2008. (In Russ.)

Adobe pdf 24  Full text in Russian


The Right to Safe Work Considering the Challenges of Scientific and Technological Development of the Russian Federation  Pdf 16

Seregina L. V.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

Abstract. The Decent Work Concept of the International Labor Organization states that decent work must be safe. If the work is well paid, but it is unsafe, if the person works in conditions of freedom, but at the same time risks health, if the conditions of the labor contract are good, but the work undermines the health and well-being of the person, then such work cannot be considered worthy.
In accordance with Art. 37 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, everyone has the right to work in conditions that meet the requirements of safety and hygiene. Decree of the President of the Russian Federation “On National Goals and Strategic Tasks of the Development of the Russian Federation for the Period until 2024” among the national development goals of the Russian Federation provides for an increase in life expectancy to 78 years (up to 80 years by 2030). The implementation of the task formulated to reduce the mortality rate and strengthen the reproductive health of the population, formulated in the Concept of Demographic Policy of the Russian Federation for the period until 2025, largely depends on solving problems in the field of labor protection.
The study found that the development of information technology, globalization processes, decentralization and specialization of production and other factors of scientific and technological development determine the need to expand the subject composition, object and content of the right to safe labor. Despite the fact that everyone has the right to safe labor, its implementation is hampered by the lack of proper regulation to ensure occupational safety in atypical forms of employment. In this regard, the author proposes the development and adoption of the federal law “On the Basics of Labor Protection in the Russian Federation”, which should fix general rules for all forms of employment and the requirements for ensuring labor safety.

Keywords: decent work, safe work, the right to safe work, labor protection, labor contract, atypical forms of employment.

For citation: Seregina L. V. The Right to Safe Work Considering the Challenges of Scientific and Technological Development of the Russian Federation. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 6, pp. 79—94. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.068


Actual problems of labor law. Ed. by N. L. Lyutov. Moscow, 2017. 688 p. (In Russ.)

Agoshkov A. I., Brusentsova T. A., Razd"yakonova E. A. Labor safety in construction. Moscow, 2018. 136 p. (In Russ.)

Aksenov A. A., Milokhov V. V. The importance of labor protection standards in the USSR for ensuring healthy and safe working conditions. Pravovedenie, 1973, no. 4, pp. 49—54. (In Russ.)

Bikmetov R. I., Kirsanov R. V., Tishin R. V. Commentary on Section X “Labor Protection” of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation. Access from SPS “Garant”, 2016.

Braun E. A. The concept of atypical employment and the classification of its types. Trudovoe pravo v Rossii i za rubezhom, 2014, no. 3, pp. 11—15. (In Russ.)

Chernyaeva D. V. Comparative legal aspects of the provision of guarantees and compensations in connection with a violation of the right of workers to favorable working conditions. Sport: ekonomika, pravo, upravlenie, 2009, no. 1, pp. 10—13. (In Russ.)

Chesalina O. V. From Non-Standard Occupational Forms to Work Based on Internet Platforms. Trudovoe pravo v Rossii i za rubezhom, 2018, no. 1, pp. 22—25. (In Russ.)

Decent work. Safe work. Introductory report to the XVII World Congress on Occupational Safety and Health. Orlando, 2005. Available at:

Eremin V. G., Safronov V. V., Skhirtladze A. G., Kharlamov G. A. Labor safety in mechanical engineering in questions and answers. Staryy Oskol, 2015. 238 p. (In Russ.)

Gimpel'son V., Kapelyushnikov R. Precarious work. Voprosy ekonomiki, 2006, no. 1, pp. 122—143. (In Russ.)

Gintsburg L.Ya. Some problems of labor law in the light of the decisions of the XXII Congress of the CPSU. Pravovedenie, 1963, no. 2, pp. 70—82. (In Russ.)

ILO Report “Decent Work. Safe work. Protection against HIV. AIDS”. Zheneva, 2006. Available at: 312023.pdf.

ILO Report “Labor protection — the basis of the future of the world of work. Building on Centennial Experience”. Decent Work Technical Support Team and ILO Office for Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Moscow, 2019. 75 p.

Ivanov S. A. Soviet science of labor law: problems and development prospects. Problemy trudovogo prava i prava sotsial'nogo obespecheniya. Moscow, 1975. Pp. 5—27. (In Russ.)

Kaplun S. I. Fundamentals of General Occupational Health. Moscow; Leningrad, 1925. 214 p. (In Russ.)

Kashlakova A. S. Labor protection of workers with atypical forms of employment. Trudovoe pravo v Rossii i za rubezhom, 2015, no. 1, pp. 13—15. (In Russ.)

Khnykin G. V. Disturbing Tendencies of Amendment of Labor Laws Related to Labor Protection. Trudovoe pravo v Rossii i za rubezhom, 2019, no. 1, pp. 32—35. (In Russ.)

Kulikov O. N., Rolin E. I. Safety at enterprises of building materials, products and structures. Moscow, 2011. 368 p. (In Russ.)

Lushnikov A. M., Lushnikova M. V. Labor rights in the XXI century: current status and development trends. Moscow, 2015. 272 p. (In Russ.)

Lyutov N. L. International legal regulation of home work and telework. Kadrovik, 2011, no. 11, pp. 10—15. (In Russ.)

Motsnaya O. V. Atypical employment: some problems of theory and practice. Cand. diss. thesis. Moscow, 2009. 26 p. (In Russ.)

Murav'ev V. A. Labor safety. Moscow, 2007. 368 p. (In Russ.)

Results of the year: labor protection. 31.12.2019. Available at:

Safety and health at the heart of the future of work: Building on 100 years of experience. Geneva, 2019. Available at:

Varentsova V. G., Begichev B. K. Some issues of labor law. Pravovedenie, 1959, no. 2, pp. 44—54. (In Russ.)

Adobe pdf 24  Full text in Russian

Regulatory Issues in Electing a Rector of a Highest Educational Institution in the Russian Federation  Pdf 16

Biryukov S. V.

Dostoevsky Omsk State University, Omsk 644077, Russian Federation

Abstract. The article analyzes the regulation of the election of heads of higher educational institutions in the Russian Federation. Some legal problems are identified, which are partly related to the assessment of this institute as ineffective (the lack of a General rule defining the categories of universities that use this method of empowering the rector, insufficient regulation of the certification procedure for the post of rector, an alternative basis for elections, uncertainty of the term for electing the head and the term for holding re-elections if necessary, etc.).
The purpose and objectives of the research are to create prerequisites for optimizing the relevant electoral process and formulate proposals for improving legislation, including the Federal law “On Education in the Russian Federation”, by-laws of Executive authorities of the Russian Federation that perform the functions of founders of higher educational institutions, and local regulations of educational organizations that regulate the procedure for electing rectors.
The paper uses comparative legal and formal legal methods, as well as the sociological method of observation.
As a result, such proposals for improving regulation are formulated as fixing the election of rectors as the main way to empower them with an exhaustive list of exceptions, clarifying the grounds for making a decision to recognize a candidate for the position of rector as not having passed certification, norms on the term of office of the rector, fixing separate rules for determining delegates to the conference of employees and students of the University for the election of the rector at the Federal level, setting a deadline for the performance of the rector's duties in the event that the election is declared invalid. They can help improve the effectiveness of elections as a way to empower the head of a University.

Keywords: rector, higher education institution, election of the rector, academic freedom, academic autonomy.

For citation: Biryukov S. V. Regulatory Issues in Electing a Rector of a Highest Educational Institution in the Russian Federation. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 6, pp. 95—105. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.069


Diev V. S. Russian university in the context of globalization: some characteristics of management model. Filosofiya obrazovaniya, 2015, no. 5, pp. 33—39. (In Russ.)

Makushin A. V. The development of intra-university democracy and the election of the rector of Voronezh State University. Vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya “Problemy vysshego obrazovaniya”. 2011. Pp. 123—128. (In Russ.)

Posokhov S. I. Statutes of Russian universities of the XIX century in the assessments of contemporaries and descendants. Voprosy obrazovaniya, 2006, no. 1, pp. 370 — 382. (In Russ.)

Posokhov S. I. University reform of 1863 in the number of the Great Reforms: historiographical aspect. Mir istorika. Omsk, 2014. Pp. 81—103. (In Russ.)

Rectors of leading universities will elect public councils? Available at: (accessed 12.07.2019). (In Russ.)

Reprintsev D. D., Matveev N. N. The procedure for filling the post of rector of a higher educational institution. Pravo i obrazovanie, 2011, no. 4, pp. 4—11. (In Russ.)

The Ministry of Education and Science will retain the right to approve university rectors. Available at: (accessed 14.08.2019). (In Russ.)

There is no choice: the Ministry of Education and Science plans to appoint rectors. Available at: (accessed 12.07.2019). (In Russ.)

Tomsinov V. A. Preparation and implementation of the university reform of 1863. Universitetskaya reforma 1863 goda v Rossii. Moscow, 2012. Pp. LXVIII—CXVII. (In Russ.)

Volosnikova L. M. 1804 University Charter of the Russian Empire: regime of academic freedom. Istoriya gosudarstva i prava, 2006, no. 4, pp. 33—37. (In Russ.)

Volosnikova L. M. About the principle of academic autonomy. Universitetskoe upravlenie: praktika i analiz, 2005, no. 5, pp. 44—49. (In Russ.)

Volosnikova L. M. Problems of academic freedom in the context of the Constitution of the Russian Federation. Rossiyskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal, 2006, no. 2, pp. 34—42. (In Russ.)

Zimulina G. D. The evolution of the development of the institute of rector elections in Russia. Gumanitarnye nauchnye issledovaniya, 2018, no. 1. (In Russ.)

Adobe pdf 24  Full text in Russian


Criminal and Legal Influence in the Mechanism of Ensuring Economic Security (Issues and Trends in Legislative Regulation)  Pdf 16

Nudel S. L.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

Abstract. The article analyzes the current trends of criminal law influence in the mechanism of economic security based on doctrinal approaches to the criminal policymaking.
The purpose of the study is to develop conceptual points of the theory of ensuring economic security through criminal law influence and to prepare a set of scientifically based proposals for improving criminal policy in the interests of ensuring economic security of the Russian Federation.
When implementing this goal, special attention is paid to the issues of criminalization and penalization of socially dangerous acts in the context of ensuring economic security: it is determined that these processes are characterized by different directions. A brief description of the criminal law situation in the field of economic security is given. The most acute problems of criminal-legal influence in the mechanism of ensuring economic security at the legislative level are revealed.
It is concluded that the improvement of the criminal law influence in the mechanism of ensuring economic security should be built in a single set of measures to ensure security, considering national interests, internal and external threats.

Keywords: economic security, criminal policy, crime, criminal impact, criminalization, decriminalization, penalization, depenalization.

For citation: Nudel S. L. Criminal and Legal Influence in the Mechanism of Ensuring Economic Security (Issues and Trends in Legislative Regulation). Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 6, pp. 106—119. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.070


Akopova E. S., Taranov P. V., Samygin S. I. Mechanisms to ensure the economic security of the russian society. Gumanitarnye, sotsial'no-ekonomicheskie i obshchestvennye nauki, 2017, no. 2, pp. 175—178. (In Russ.)

Aminov D. I. About some problems of criminal policy in the credit and financial sphere. Proceedings of the Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. Criminal policy and criminal law reform. Moscow, 1997, pp. 49—55. (In Russ.)

Aminov D. I., Polishchuk D. A. Secrets of efficiency penal policy. Rossiyskiy sledovatel', 2013, no. 18, pp. 11—14. (In Russ.)

Dagel' P. S. Problems of Soviet criminal policy. Vladivostok, 1982. 124 p. (In Russ.)

Esakov G. A., Ponyatovskaya T. G., Rarog A. I. i dr. Criminal law impact. Ed. by A. I. Rarog. Moscow, 2012. 286 p. (In Russ.)

Gaukhman L. D., Maksimov S. V. Criminal and legal protection of the financial sphere: new types of crimes and their qualification. Moscow, 1995. 90 p. (In Russ.)

Gavrilov B. Ya. Modern criminal policy in Russia: facts and figures. Moscow, 2008. 208 p. (In Russ.)

Golubov I. I. Stability of standards of the criminal law — a condition of effective criminal policy (on an example of 31 chapters of the criminal code of Russian Federation). Rossiyskiy sledovatel', 2012, no. 20, pp. 19—21. (In Russ.)

Gravina A. A. Humanization of Criminal Law and Its Role in Preventing Crimes in the Field of Entrepreneurship. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 8, pp. 85—95. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.8.8. (In Russ.)

Kibal'nik A. G. Inadmissibility of administrative prejudice in criminal legislation. Biblioteka kriminalista. Nauchnyy zhurnal, 2013, no. 2, pp. 119—122. (In Russ.)

Kontseptsiya modernizatsii ugolovnogo zakonodatel'stva v ekonomicheskoy sfere na osnovanii Porucheniya Prezidenta Rossiyskoy Federatsii No. PR-3169 ot 28 noyabrya 2009 goda. Moscow, 2010.

Kubov R. Kh. Development of Criminal Policy at the Contemporary Stage. Rossiyskiy sledovatel', 2009, no. 3, pp. 16—21. (In Russ.)

Kulikov A. S. Globalization and new security challenges in the form of crime and terrorism. Antiterror, 2002, no. 1, pp. 8—11. (In Russ.)

Kuznetsova N. F. Problems of qualification of crimes: lectures on the special course “Fundamentals of qualifying crimes”. Ed. by V. N. Kudryavtsev. Moscow, 2007. 332 p. (In Russ.)

Lesnikov G. Yu. Criminal policy of modern Russia (methodological, organizational and legal bases). Dr. diss. Moscow, 2005. 350 p. (In Russ.)

Lopashenko N. A. Say No to Administrative Prejudice in Criminal Law! Vestnik Akademii General'noy prokuratury Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 2011, no. 3, pp. 64—71. (In Russ.)

Lyapunov Yu. I. Public danger of an act as a universal category of Soviet criminal law. Moscow, 1989. 117 p. (In Russ.)

Milyukov S. F. Place of punishment in the system of state enforcement measures. Problems of fighting economic crime and drug trafficking in the transition to the market. Part 2. St. Petersburg, 1994. 205 p. (In Russ.)

Naumov A. V. Theoretical issues of application of criminal law norms. Dr. diss. thesis. Kiev, 1975. 50 p. (In Russ.)

Nudel' S. L. General characteristics of the criminal legal situation in the sphere of protection of financial relations. Uchenye trudy Rossiyskoy Akademii advokatury i notariata, 2014, no. 1 (32), pp. 87—92. (In Russ.)

Pobegaylo E. F. Crisis of modern Russian criminal policy. Ugolovnoe pravo, 2004, no. 3, pp. 132—135. (In Russ.)

Potokina S. A., Bocharova O. N., Lanina I. O. Essence and mechanisms of maintenance of economic safety of region. Sotsial'no-ekonomicheskie yavleniya i protsessy, 2012, no. 3, pp. 82—90. (In Russ.)

Razgil'diev B. T. Tasks of the criminal law of the Russian Federation and their implementation. Dr. diss. thesis. Moscow, 1994. 37 p. (In Russ.)

Reshetnikov A. Yu. Criminal offense and unfinished crime: common ground. Ugolovnoe pravo, 2017, no. 4, pp. 104—108. (In Russ.)

Russian criminal law: a course of lectures. Vol. 1: Crime. Ed. by A. I. Korobeev. Vladivostok, 1999. 602 p. (In Russ.)

Shergin A. P., Shergina K. F. Problems of integration of administrative and criminal responsibility. Nauchnyy portal MVD Rossii, 2010, no. 4 (12), pp. 13—20. (In Russ.)

System of maintenance of legislative activity. Available at: (accessed 10.01.2020).

The Russian legal policy: course of lectures. Ed. by N. I. Matuzov, A. V. Mal'ko. Moscow, 2003. 520 p. (In Russ.)

Zhalinskiy A. E. About the current state of criminal law science. Ugolovnoe pravo, 2005, no. 1, pp. 21—24. (In Russ.)

Zhalinskiy A. E. Criminal policy and objectives of criminal law. Pravo i politika, 2006, no. 6, pp. 4—12. (In Russ.)

Zor'kin V. D. The Constitution lives in laws. Reserves for improving the quality of Russian legislation. Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2014, no. 288. (In Russ.)

Adobe pdf 24  Full text in Russian

Legal Terminology Editing regarding the Mechanism of Acquisition of Legal Essence by Criminal Law  Pdf 16

Kazakova V. A., Inshakov S. M.

Institute of International Law and Justice, Moscow State Linguistic University, Moscow 119034, Russian Federation

Abstract. The article considers terminological shortcomings of the text of the Russian Criminal Code, as well as contradictions of an interdisciplinary nature, including the lack of definitions for terms that have several semantic concepts, legal lacunae; normative redundancy; normative conflicts and other linguistic inaccuracies that affect the quality of the qualification of crimes and the imposition of punishments.
The purpose of the research is to find ways to edit legal terminology and eliminate negative factors using the example of articles of the Russian Criminal Code's General and Special parts. The research aims at identifying ambiguous definitions, comparing conflicting provisions of the Criminal code, and judicial interpretation of such synonymous or identical terms as “involvement”. “persuasion”, “compulsion”, “coercion”, etc. Comparison of wording reflecting the role of the court in exonerating the guilty from responsibility, and their relationship to the scope of the court's powers in this process.
Methods of comparative law, systematic and grammatical interpretation, study of documents (decisions of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation), and statistical analysis of data on punishments applied by courts were used in the article.
The direct link between the terminological errors in the text of the criminal law and problems of qualification of crimes and their penalties, the prerequisites of derogation from judicial practice enshrined in law and doctrinal principles of criminal responsibility — the rule of law, subjective imputation, etc. is revealed in the article. The ways of improvement of legislative technique of criminal law is also offered.

Keywords: terminological shortcomings, legal lacunae, normative redundancy, ambiguity of terms in the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, conflict of law.

For citation: Kazakova V. A., Inshakov S. M. Legal Terminology Editing regarding the Mechanism of Acquisition of Legal Essence by Criminal Law. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 6, pp. 120—133. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.071


Atagimova E. I., Potemkina A. T., Tsopanova I. G. Law-creating errors as a form of legal errors. Vestnik Moskovskogo gumanitarno-ekonomicheskogo instituta, 2017, no. 2, pp. 41—48. (In Russ.)

Commentary to the Criminal code of the Russian Federation (scientific and practical, article-by-article). Ed. by S. V. D'yakov, N. G. Kadnikov. Moscow, 2016. 1040 p. (In Russ.)

Conflicts of legislation of Russia and a number of countries (brief scientific commentary). Ed. by A. A. Krymov, A. P. Skiba. 3rd ed. Moscow, 2018. 407 p. (In Russ.)

Danil'chenko T. Yu. Lacunas: a problem, the term, concept. Zhurnal'nyy klub Intelros “Credo New”, 2010, no. 4. (In Russ.)

Dolgikh I. P. Community service as a form of administrative penalty: problems of sentencing and implementation. Sistema tsennostey sovremennogo obshchestva, 2014, no. 37, pp. 81—85. (In Russ.)

Inshakov S. M., Kazakova V. A. Constitutional collisions of criminal Iaw. Aktual'nye problemy ekonomiki i prava, 2016, vol. 10, no. 4 (40), pp. 230—236. (In Russ.)

Popova S. A., Gruzinskaya E. I. The quality of laws as an element of the legal technique (a case study of criminal law). Voprosy rossiyskogo i mezhdunarodnogo prava, 2019, vol. 9, no. 5-1, pp. 43—50. (In Russ.)

Rarog A. I. The step to elimination of conflicts in the criminal law. Modern problems of criminal policy. V international scientific and practical conference. Ed. by A. N. Il'yashenko. Krasnodar, 2014. Pp. 15—21. (In Russ.)

Adobe pdf 24  Full text in Russian


Legal Interest as a Separate Legal Possibility: The Protection Mechanism in the Civil Process  Pdf 16

Burmistrova S. A.

Ural branch, Russian State University of Justice, Chelyabinsk 454135, Russian Federation

Abstract. The article is an attempt to substantiate the protection mechanism in the civil process of legal interest as an independent legal permission. The subject of realization and protection of interests in law (legal interests, legitimate interests, interests protected by law) in the domestic legal doctrine of the last century, a huge number of scientific papers are devoted. As a result, it may seem that the subject has exhausted itself. However, dive into the problem reveals that the mechanism of realization and protection of legal interest as a separate legal permission is absent and judicial protection is either carried out only within the framework of separate proceedings (special and proceedings in cases arising from public relations) or it is develops according to the model of subjective law without a clear understanding of what is the object of protection in a particular case-the right or interest. Overcoming the described situation began with the appearance of the theory of legitimate interests in the General theory of law as an independent legal permission, supported and developed in this article.
The purpose of the research is to develop an integral mechanism for the protection of legal interests in the civil process as one of the legal permissions, the achievement of which provides a solution to the problems: justification of systems of ways, forms and means of protecting legal interests.
The methodological basis of the study was General and special methods, such as analysis and synthesis, logical, special-legal.
Based on the presentation of the essential differences between legal interest and subjective law, the author was able to propose a system of ways, forms and means of protecting legal interests as a separate legal possibility. It justifies the presence in the implementation mechanism of the legal interest derealization and implementation phases, as well as their corresponding disputes; specific activities for the protection of the legal interest in the implementation phase, consisting in the necessity of creating a reference model contentious relationship with its subsequent use.

Keywords: legal interests, mechanism of protection, methods of protection, forms of protection, means of protection.

For citation: Burmistrova S. A. Legal Interest as a Separate Legal Possibility: The Protection Mechanism in the Civil Process. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 6, pp. 134—147. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.072


Begichev B. K. Goals of Soviet Labor Law. Pravovedenie, 1980, no. 5, pp. 43—48. (In Russ.)

Bratus' S. N. Legal Entities in Soviet Civil Law. The Works of Scientists: Concept, Types, State Legal Entities. Iss. 12. Moscow, 1947. 364 p. (In Russ.)

Burmistrova S. A. Legal Relationship as a Form of Expression and Realization of Legal Interest. Vestnik Yuzhno-Ural'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Pravo, 2018, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 56—62. (In Russ.)

Burmistrova S. A. Legitimate Interests, Subjective Rights and Freedoms as Legal Opportunities: the Ratio of the Structure, Content and Implementation. Gosudarstvo i pravo, 2019, no. 3. p. 18. (In Russ.)

Burmistrova S. A. Protection of Rights, Freedoms and Legitimate Interests — Issues of Differentiation. Rossiyskoe pravosudie, 2018, no. 1 (141), pp. 59—68. (In Russ.)

Burmistrova S. A. System Ways of Protection of Legal Interests. Zakony Rossii: opyt, analiz, praktika, 2019, no. 2, pp. 91—94. (In Russ.)

Burmistrova S. A. The Creation of Conditions for the Exercise of Interest as a Way for Its Protection. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 3, pp. 17—27. DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_3_2. (In Russ.)

Burmistrova S. A. Violation Threat Elimination and Violation Prevention as Means of Legal Interest Protection. Arbitrazhnyy i grazhdanskiy protsess, 2018, no. 5, pp. 25—29. (In Russ.)

Chechot D. M. Problems of Protection of Subjective Rights and Interests in Non-search Proceedings of the Soviet Civil Procedure. Dr. diss. thesis. Leningrad, 1969. (In Russ.)

Chechot D. M. Subjective Law and Forms of its Protection. Leningrad, 1968. 74 p. (In Russ.)

Ekimov A. I. Interests and Law in a Socialist Society. Leningrad, 1984. 120 p. (In Russ.)

Gambarov Yu. S. The Course of Civil Law. The Portion of the Total. St. Petersburg, 1911. Vol. 1. 793 p. (In Russ.)

Gribanov V. P. Principles for the Exercise of Civil Rights. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya XII: Pravo. 1966, no. 3, pp. 10—23. (In Russ.)

Gruzdev V. V. Civil Law Protection of Personal Property Interests. Moscow, 2012. 192 p. (In Russ.)

Gukasyan R. E. The Problem of Interest in Soviet Civil Procedure Law. Saratov, 1970. 190 p. (In Russ.)

Iering R. Fight for the Right. Ed. by S. I. Ershov. Moscow, 1991. 64 p. (In Russ.)

Khramova E. V. Protection of Public Legal Interests in the Arbitration Process. Cand. diss. thesis. Saratov, 2011. 22 p. (In Russ.)

Krasheninnikov E. A. Interests Protected by Law. Methodology of Law: General Problems and Industry Features: Scientific Notes of the Tartu State University. Iss. 806. Tartu, 1988. Pp. 235—260. (In Russ.)

Kuchinskiy V. A. Legal Interests: from the Constitution to Law-making Activities. Theoretical Issues of Implementation of the Constitution of the USSR. Moscow, 1982. Pp. 85—88. (In Russ.)

Malein N. S. Legally Protected Interest. Sovetskoe grazhdanskoe pravo, 1980, no. 1, pp. 27—34. (In Russ.)

Mal'ko A. V. Legitimate Interests of Soviet Citizens. Cand. diss. thesis. Saratov, 1985. 20 p. (In Russ.)

Mal'ko A. V. Subjective Right and Legitimate Interest. Pravovedenie, 1998, no. 4, pp. 58—70. (In Russ.)

Mal'ko A. V., Subochev V. V. Legitimate Interests as a Legal Category. St. Petersburg, 2004. 359 p. (In Russ.)

Mal'tsev G. V. Correlation of Subjective Rights, Duties and Interests of Soviet Citizens. Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo, 1965, no. 10, pp. 19—26. (In Russ.)

Mal'tsev G. V. Social Grounds of Law. Moscow, 2007. 800 p. (In Russ.)

Matuzov N. I. Personality. Rights. Democracy. Theoretical Questions of the Subjective Right. Saratov, 1972. 292 p. (In Russ.)

Mikhaylov S. V. Category of Interest in Russian Civil Law. Moscow, 2002. 205 p. (In Russ.)

Mikhaylova E. V. Procedural Forms of Protection of Subjective Civil Rights, Freedoms and Legitimate Interests in the Russian Federation (Judicial and Non-judicial). Dr. diss. thesis. Moscow, 2013. 46 p. (In Russ.)

Romovskaya Z. V. Judicial Protection of Interest Protected by Law. XXVI Congress of the CPSU and Problems of Implementation of Soviet Law. L'vov, 1983. Pp. 74—81. (In Russ.)

Rozhdestvenskiy A. A. Fundamentals of the General Theory of Law. Moscow, 1912. 174 p. (In Russ.)

Shaykenov N. A. Legal Protection of Individual Interests. Sverdlovsk, 1990. 200 p. (In Russ.)

Shaykenov N. A. Legal Status of the Individual and its Interests. XXVI Congress of the CPSU and Development of the Theory of Law. Sverdlovsk, 1982. Pp. 104—109. (In Russ.)

Shershenevich G. F. General Theory of Law. Moscow, 1910. Vol. 2. 814 p. (In Russ.)

Subochev V. V. Legal Interests in the Mechanism of Legal Regulation. Moscow, 2007. 188 p. (In Russ.)

Subochev V. V. Legitimate Interest. Ed. by A. V. Mal'ko. Moscow, 2008. 496 p. (In Russ.)

Subochev V. V. Legitimate Interest. Problems of the Theory of State and Law. Ed. by A. V. Mal'ko. Moscow, 2012. Pp. 362—380. (In Russ.)

Subochev V. V. The Theory of the Legitimate Interests. Dr. diss. thesis. Tambov, 2009. 57 p. (In Russ.)

Vitruk N. V. Problems of the Theory of the Legal Status of the Individual in a Developed Socialist Society. Dr. diss. thesis. Moscow, 1979. 33 p. (In Russ.)

Vitruk N. V. System of Personal Rights. Prava lichnosti v sotsialisticheskom obshchestve. Moscow, 1981. Pp. 86—114. (In Russ.)

Yurchenko O. O. The Right to Protection and Ways to Protect a Legally Protected Interest in Civil Law. Cand. diss. thesis. Krasnodar, 2004. 18 p. (In Russ.)

Adobe pdf 24  Full text in Russian


Ecological Imperatives in the System of Norms of Environment Conservancy  Pdf 16

Luneva E. V.

Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan 420008, Russian Federation

Abstract. Both a narrow and broad understanding of environmental imperatives in science is revealed. In philosophy, environmental imperatives have a narrow meaning and are a system of restrictions that only ensure the preservation of the natural environment. It is proved that environmental imperatives in law are characterized by a broad content and are fixed not only by legal restrictions, but also by other legal means (legal incentives, legal guarantees, etc.) aimed at both protecting environmental systems (sustainable nature management) and increasing their sustainability and productivity (rational nature management).
At the present stage of environmental and legal regulation development, environmental imperatives are represented by the environmental protection rules enshrined in the law that regulate human activities in such a way as to ensure at least sustainable use of natural resources. In case of violation of these rules, there is a transition from sustainable to degradative environmental management, for which measures of legal liability are provided.
It is shown that in the field of rational nature management a special type of environmental imperatives is applied — natural resource imperatives. The forms of consolidation and/or expression of natural resource imperatives include: the rights of nature users in the field of rational nature management; nature users obligations in the field of rational nature management; requirements for environmental management; legal guarantees of natural resource imperatives. All this forms of consolidation and/or expression of natural resource imperatives are interconnected as components of a single system. The forms of fixing and / or expressing natural resource imperatives differ from environmental imperatives only in that the forms of fixing and / or expressing environmental imperatives — rights, obligations, requirements and guarantees — are aimed at ensuring sustainable nature management, and natural resource imperatives have the goal of moving from sustainable to rational nature management as the most effective option for interaction between society and nature.

Keywords: sustainable use of natural resources, ecological imperatives, imperatives in the field of natural resources, legal prohibition, legal restrictions, legal endorsements, legal safeguards, ecological legal regulation.

For citation: Luneva E. V. Ecological Imperatives in the System of Norms of Environment Conservancy. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 6, pp. 148—161. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.073


Belokrylova E. A. Commentary on the Law of the Russian Federation “About Security” (article by article). Moscow, 2008. 280 p. (In Russ.)

Globalization and integration processes in the Asia-Pacific region (legal and economic research). Ed. by T. Y. Khabrieva. Moscow, 2014. 333 p. (In Russ.)

Kamyshanskiy V. P. Constitutional restrictions on property rights. Yurist, 2004, no. 5, pp. 5—7. (In Russ.)

Kolbasov O. S. Correlation of administrative and economic methods of environmental protection. Ekologicheskoe pravo i rynok. Moscow, 1994. Pp. 45—54. (In Russ.)

Kolbasov O. S. International legal environmental protection. Moscow, 1982. 240 p. (In Russ.)

Kolesnikov Yu. Yu. Environmental imperative: a spiritual and paradigmatic discourse. Cand. diss. Stavropol', 2006. 163 p. (In Russ.)

Kolosova O. Yu. Environmental imperative in the culture of the information society. Cand. diss. thesis. Stavropol', 2003. 23 p. (In Russ.)

Korolev S. V. Environmental Imperative Sine Qua Non of Civil Jurisprudence of the XXI Century. Ekologicheskoe pravo, 2010, no. 2, pp. 33—36. (In Russ.)

Kostarev S. V., Kalinina Yu. I. Environmental imperative: foundation and understanding. Lichnost'. Kul'tura. Obshchestvo, 2009, vol. 11, no. 3 (50), pp. 349—355. (In Russ.)

Loshkarev A. V. Legal guarantees: theoretical problems of definition and classification. Cand. diss. thesis. Krasnodar, 2009. 25 p. (In Russ.)

Luneva E. V. Environmental and legal regulation of rational nature management: interdisciplinary aspect. Vestnik Universiteta imeni O. E. Kutafina (MGYuA), 2019, no. 1, pp. 137—147. (In Russ.)

Luneva E. V. Rational Use of Natural Resources: The Concept and Legal Criteria. Lex Russica, 2017, no. 8, pp. 61—72. (In Russ.)

Luneva E. V. The legal regime of land in specially protected natural areas. Moscow, 2018. 159 p. (In Russ.)

Malyagin V. V. Ecological imperative as a condition for the further development of the mankind. Izvestiya Tul'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Gumanitarnye nauki, 2015, no. 3, pp. 157—163. (In Russ.)

Natural resource legislation in the context of modernization of the Russian economy: modern problems of development. Ed. by N. G. Zhavoronkova. Moscow, 2014. 160 p. (In Russ.)

Petrov V. V. Ecology and law. Moscow, 1981. 224 p. (In Russ.)

Petrov V. V. Environmental Law of Russia. Moscow, 1995. 557 p. (In Russ.)

Petrov V. V. Legal protection of nature in the USSR. Moscow, 1984. 384 p. (In Russ.)

Rusin S. N. Legal Regulation Mechanism and Environmental Policy. Ekologicheskoe pravo, 2017, no. 5, pp. 13—20. (In Russ.)

Rybushkin N. N. Prohibition in Soviet law. Kazan', 1990. 112 p. (In Russ.)

Scientific and practical commentary on the Federal Law “On Environmental Protection” (article by article). Ed. by A. P. Anisimov. Moscow, 2010. 600 p. (In Russ.)

Tikhomirov Yu. A. Theoretical and practical view of water law. Water legislation and environmental challenges: collection of materials of a scientific and practical conference (Moscow, June 15, 2012). Ed. by S. A. Bogolyubov, D. O. Sivakov, O. A. Zolotova. Moscow, 2012. 312 p. (In Russ.)

Tselishchev N. N. BRICS, WTO and National Security Problems. World Trade Organization Law: Impact on the Economy and Legislation of the States of the Euro-Asian Region. Ed. by V. D. Perevalov. Moscow, 2014. 159 p. (In Russ.)

Vasil'eva M. I. Public interests in Environmental Law. Moscow, 2003. 424 p. (In Russ.)

Volkov G. A. Guarantees on land plot title: withdrawing land plots for state and municipal use. Zakonodatel'stvo, 2015, no. 12, pp. 10—22. (In Russ.)

Adobe pdf 24  Full text in Russian

Formation and Development of Legal Regulation of the Organization and Implementation of State Environmental Monitoring in Russia  Pdf 16

Sataeva T. Yu.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

Abstract. Providing interested consumers with complete and reliable information about the state of the environment, as well as the results of assessment and forecasting of its changes under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors, can be ensured through the effective functioning of a modern system of state environmental monitoring. The creation of such a system is currently one of the main tasks of state policy in the field of environmental development in Russia, the success of which largely depends on the effectiveness of legal support for the organization and implementation of state environmental monitoring.
Legal regulation of relations regarding environmental monitoring has been formed for several centuries. Currently, a separate Chapter of the Federal law “On Environmental Protection” is devoted to state environmental addition, there are many different legal acts regulating the organization and implementation of environmental monitoring and its varieties. The extensive and complex structure of the legal framework is subject to detailed research and further improvement to improve the effectiveness of legal support for the organization and implementation of environmental monitoring in Russia.
Using the methods of historical and system analysis, the author conducts a study of the formation and development of legal regulation of the organization and implementation of state environmental monitoring in Russia, identifies the features of such development in different periods of time, and formulates proposals for improving legislation in this area.

Keywords: environmental observations, ecological monitoring, types of ecological monitoring, ecological monitoring entities, state ecological monitoring.

For citation: Sataeva T. Yu. Formation and Development of Legal Regulation of the Organization and Implementation of State Environmental Monitoring in Russia. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 6, pp. 162—175. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.074


Brinchuk M. M. Environmental Law. Moscow, 2008. Access from SPS “Consultant Plus”. (In Russ.)

Brinchuk M. M. On the Merits of the New Federal Law “On Environmental Protection”. Ekologicheskoe pravo, 2002, no. 3. (In Russ.)

Golichenkov A. K. Environmental Control: Theory, Practice of Legal Regulation. Moscow, 1991. (In Russ.)

Golichenkov A. K. Environmental Law of Russia: Dictionary of Legal Terms. Moscow, 2008. 448 p. (In Russ.)

Gosudarstvennyy doklad “O sostoyanii okruzhayushchey prirodnoy sredy Rossiyskoy Federatsii v 1996 godu”. Moscow, 1997. 508 p.

Izrael Yu. A. Ecology and Environmental Monitoring. Leningrad, 1984. (In Russ.)

Natural Resource Legislation in the Context of Modernization of the Russian Economy: Modern Problems of Development. Ed. by N. G. Zhavoronkova. Moscow, 2014. (In Russ.)

Nezdyurov D. F. Essays on the Development of Meteorological Observations in Russia. Leningrad, 1969. (In Russ.)

O Gosudarstvennom gidrologicheskom institute (istoriya). Available at: (accessed 08.08.2019).

Pasetskiy V. M. Vitus Bering (1681—1741). Moscow. 1982. (In Russ.)

Snytko V. A., Sobisevich A. V. Contribution of Professor I. P. Gerasimov in the Problem of Ecological Monitoring. Problemy ekologicheskogo monitoringa i modelirovaniya ekosistem, 2017, vol. 28, no. 1. (In Russ.)

Sokolov V. V. Essays on the Ecological and Climatic History of Russia. St. Petersburg, 2010. (In Russ.)

Sokolov V. V. Essays on the History of State Structures of Nature Management and Nature Conservation in Russia from Antiquity to the Present. St. Petersburg, 2007. (In Russ.)

To the Anniversary of Professor Yu. A. Izrael. Problemy ekologicheskogo monitoringa i modelirovaniya ekosistem, 2005, vol. 20. (In Russ.)

Tverskoy P. N. The Development of Meteorology in the USSR. Leningrad, 1949. (In Russ.)

Adobe pdf 24  Full text in Russian


Review of the Monograph “Legal Relations (Morality of Modern Legal Regulation)” by P. P. Serkov (Moscow, 2020. 688 p.).  Pdf 16

Pchelintsev S. V.

For citation: Pchelintsev S. V. Review of the Monograph “Legal Relations (Morality of Modern Legal Regulation)” by P. P. Serkov (Moscow, 2020. 688 p.). Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 6, pp. 176—181. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.075

Adobe pdf 24  Full text in Russian


Gaps in Positive Law: The Doctrine and Practice  Pdf 16

Ibragimova Yu. E., Zaloilo M. V.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

For citation: Ibragimova Yu. E., Zaloilo M. V. Gaps in Positive Law: The Doctrine and Practice. Journal of Russian Law, 2020, no. 6, pp. 182—205. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2020.076

Adobe pdf 24  Full text in Russian

Contents of issues: